[PT29] Foundational Concepts 1 & 2***

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65 Terms

1

Therapeutic

"relating to the treatment of disease or disorders by remedial agents or methods."

"having a beneficial effect on the body or mind."

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2

Exercise

Is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

It is performed for various reasons, to aid growth and improve strength, preventing aging, developing muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, improving health and also for enjoyment.

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3

Therapeutic Exercise

is the systematic, planned performance of bodily movements, postures, or physical activities intended to provide a patient/client with the meants to: remediate or prevent impairments, enhance physical function, prevent or reduce health-related risk factors., Optimize overall health status, fitness, or sense of well-being.

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4

Patient

An individual with impairments and functional deficits diagnosed by a physical therapist and is receiving physical therapy care to improve function and prevent disability.

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5

Client

An individual without diagnosed dysfunction who engages in physical therapy services to promote health and wellness and to prevent dysfunction.

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6

Physical Function

is the ability to perform both basic and instrumental activities of daily living.

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7

Balance

Components of Physical Function

The ability to align body segments against gravity to maintain or move the body (center of mass) within the available base of support without falling; the ability to move the body in equilibrium with gravity via interaction of the sensory and motor systems.

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8

Cardiopulmonary Fitness

Components of Physical Function

The ability to perform moderate intensity, repetitive, total body movements (walking, jogging, cycling, swimming) over an extended period of time.

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9

Coordination

Components of Physical Function

The correct timing and sequencing of muscle firing combined with the appropriate intensity of muscular contraction leading to the effective initiation, guiding, and grading of movement.

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10

Flexibility

Components of Physical Function

The ability to move freely, without restriction; used interchangeably with mobility.

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11

Mobility

Components of Physical Function

The ability of structures or segments of the body to move or be moved in order to allow the occurrence of range of motion (ROM) for functional activities.

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12

Muscle Performance

Components of Physical Function

The capacity of muscle to produce tension and do physical work. Muscle performance encompasses strength, power, and muscular endurance.

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13

Neuromuscular Control

Components of Physical Function

Interaction of the sensory and motor systems that enables synergists, agonists, and antagonists, as well as stabilizers and neutralizers to anticipate or respond to proprioceptive and kinesthetic information and subsequently, to work in correct sequence to create coordinate movement.

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14

Stability

Components of Physical Function

The ability of the neuromuscular system through synergistic muscle actions to hold a proximal or distal body segment in a stationary position or to control a stable base during superimposed movement.

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15

Balance, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Coordination, Flexibility, Mobility, Muscle Performance, Neuromuscular Control, Stability

Components of Physical Function (8)

(separate with comma and space and Order based sa PPT)

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16

International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps

ICIDH = ?

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17

World Health Organization

WHO = ?

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18

International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

ICF = ?

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19

Functioning

characterized by the integrity of body functions and structures and the ability to participate in life's activities.

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20

Disability

is the result of impairments in body, functions and/or structures, activity limitations, and participation restrictions.

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21

Impairments in body function

Problems associated with of body systems (including physiological and psychological functions.)

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22

Impairments in body structure

Problems with the anatomical features of the body, such as significant deviation or loss, affecting all body systems.

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23

Activity limitations

Difficulties an individual may have in executing actions, tasks, activities.

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24

Participation restrictions

Problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations, including difficulties participating in self care, responsibilities in the home, workplace, or the community, and recreational leisure and social activities.

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25

Environmental factors

Contextual Factors that affects functioning

Physical, social, and attitudinal environment in which people conduct their lives; factors may facilitate function or hinder functioning and contribute to disability.

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26

Personal factors

Contextual Factors that affects functioning

Features of the individual that are not part of the health condition or health state; includes age, gender, race, lifestyle habits, coping skills, character, affect, cultural and social background, education, etc.

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27

Impairment

Consequences of pathological conditions and encompass the signs and symptoms that reflect abnormalities at the body system, organ, or tissue level.

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28

Impairment of Body Structure

Two Divisions of Impairment

Includes joint swelling, scarring, open wound, and lymphedema or amputation of a limb, adhesions, muscle spasm, and joint crepitus.

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29

Impairment of Body Function

Two Divisions of Impairment

Pain, reduced sensation, decreased ROM, deficits in muscle performance (strength, power, and endurance), impaired balance or coordination, abnormal reflexes, and reduced ventilation.

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30

Primary and Secondary

2 Types of Impairments

(answers separated by and)

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31

Primary Impairments

2 Types of Impairments

Direct Impairments that may arise from the health condition.

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32

Secondary Impairments

2 Types of Impairments

Indirect Impairments that may be the result of preexisting impairments

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33

Composite Impairments

The result of multiple underlying causes and arises from a combination of primary and secondary impairments.

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34

Musculoskeletal Impairment

Impairment with:

  • Pain

  • Muscle Weakness

  • Limited Range of Motion

  • Joint Hypermobility

  • Faulty Posture

  • Muscle Length/Strength Imbalances

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35

Neuromuscular Impairment

Impairment with:

  • Pain

  • Impaired balance

  • Incoordination

  • Delayed Motor Development

  • Abnormal Tone

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36

Cardiovascular/Pulmonary Impairment

Impairment with:

  • Decreased aerobic capacity

  • Impaired circulation

  • Pain with sustained physical activity

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37

Integumentary Impairment

Impairment with: Skin hypomobility

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38

Activity Limitations (Functional Limitations)

Occur when a person has difficulty executing or. is unable to perform tasks or actions of daily life.

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39

Basic ADL

Activities: bathing, dressing, or feeding

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40

Instrumental ADL

Activities: occupational tasks, school-related skills, housekeeping, and recreational activities, or community mobility.

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41

Participation Restrictions

defined as problems a person may experience in his or her involvement in life situations as measured against social standards.

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42

Disability (Nagi Model)

used to describe the inability to participate in activities or tasks related to one's self, the home, work, recreation, or the community in a manner or to the extent that the individual or the community as a whole perceive as "normal"

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43

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary

3 Categories of Prevention

(separate by comma)

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44

Primary Prevention

3 Categories of Prevention

Activities such as health promotion designed to prevent disease in an at-risk population.

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45

Secondary Prevention

3 Categories of Prevention

Early diagnosis and reduction of the severity or duration of existing disease.

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46

Tertiary Prevention

3 Categories of Prevention

Use of rehabilitation to reduce the degree or limit the progression of existing disability and improve multiple aspects of function in persons chronic, irreversible health conditions.

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47

Biological Factors

Factors

Age, Sex, Race Height/Weight Relationship Congenital Abnormalities or Disorders Family History of Disease; genetic predisposition.

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48

Behavorial/Psychological/Lifestyle Factors

Factors

Sedentary Lifestyle Cultural Biases Use of tobacco, alcohol, other drugs Poor nutrition

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49

Socioeconomic Factors

Factors

Low level of education Inadequate access to health care Limited family or social support.

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50

Clinical decision-making

refers to a dynamic, complex process of reasoning and analytical (critical) thinking that involves making judgements in the context of patient care.

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51

Evidence-based practice

"the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of an individual patient."

also involves combining knowledge of evidence from well-design research studies with the expertise of the clinician and the values, goals, and circumstances of the patient.

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52

Patient Management Model

The systematic series of steps and decisions for the purpose of helping a patient achieve the highest level functioning possible.

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53

Assessment, Evaluation, Diagnosis, Prognosis with plan of care, Interventions

(5) Five Basic Components of the Patient Management Model

(separate with comma)

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54

Intervention

A component of patient management, refers to any purposeful interaction a therapist has that directly relates to a patient's care

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55

Coordination, communication, and documentation; Procedural interventions; Patient-related Instruction

(3) Three Broad Areas of Intervention

(separate with ;)

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56

Outcomes

are results

Collection and analysis of date related to health-care services are necessities.

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57

Motor learning

is a complex set of internal processes that involves the acquisition and relatively permanent retention of a skilled movement or task through practice.

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58

Discrete, Serial, Continuous

(3) Types of Motor Tasks

(separate with comma)

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59

Discrete Task

(3) Types of Motor Tasks

involves an action or movement with a recognizable beginning and end.

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60

Serial Task

(3) Types of Motor Tasks

a series of discrete movements that are combined in a particular sequence.

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61

Continuous Task

(3) Types of Motor Tasks

involves repetitive, un-interrupted movements that have no distinct beginning and ending.

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62

Cognitive, Associative, Autonomous

(3) Stages of Motor Learning

(separate with comma)

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63

Cognitive Stage

(3) Stages of Motor Learning

When learning a skilled movement, a patient first must figure out what to do-- that is, the patient must learn the goal or purpose.

The patient tries to get the "feel" of the exercise.

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64

Associative Stage

(3) Stages of Motor Learning

At this stage, the patient requires infrequent feedback from the therapist and, instead, begins to anticipate necessary adjustments and make corrections even before errors occur.

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65

Autonomous Stage

(3) Stages of Motor Learning

Movements are automatic in this final stage of learning.

The patient does not have to pay attention to the movements in the task.

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