Transport Part 2

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

ER lumen side

1 / 120

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
121
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
121 Terms
1
New cards

ER lumen side

On which side of ER membrane is the receptor of the transmembrane protein located on?

New cards
2
New cards

Cytosol side

On which side of the ER membrane are the binding domains of the transmembrane protein located on?

New cards
3
<p>plasma membrane</p>
New cards
<p>plasma membrane</p>

plasma membrane

GPI anchor attaches proteins to the __________.

New cards
4
<p>Glycosylphosphatidylinositol</p>
New cards
<p>Glycosylphosphatidylinositol</p>

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol

What does GPI stand for?

New cards
5
<p>ER enzymes</p>
New cards
<p>ER enzymes</p>

ER enzymes

What catalyzes the GPI anchor?

New cards
6
<p>the C-terminus of a protein</p>
New cards
<p>the C-terminus of a protein</p>

the C-terminus of a protein

What is the GPI anchor covalently attached to?

New cards
7
<p>In the ER lumen</p>
New cards
<p>In the ER lumen</p>

In the ER lumen

Where does the linkage of the GPI to the C-terminus of the protein occur?

New cards
8
<p>GPI</p>
New cards
<p>GPI</p>

GPI

Protein cut free from the ER membrane and then attaches to the ________, which is membrane bound and eventually travels to the plasma membrane.

New cards
9
<p>the plasma membrane</p>
New cards
<p>the plasma membrane</p>

the plasma membrane

What does the GPI anchor attach proteins to?

New cards
10
<p>dynamic</p>
New cards
<p>dynamic</p>

dynamic

The plasma membrane is very _________, it's always forming and being recycled.

New cards
11
<p>packaging proteins to leave the cell</p>
New cards
<p>packaging proteins to leave the cell</p>

packaging proteins to leave the cell

What is exocytosis?

New cards
12
term image
New cards
term image

What is endocytosis?

New cards
13
New cards

Golgi apparatus

What is known as the mail office of the cell?

New cards
14
<p>the lumen</p>
New cards
<p>the lumen</p>

the lumen

What is the interior part of the vesicle called?

New cards
15
<p>transport vesicle</p>
New cards
<p>transport vesicle</p>

transport vesicle

What allows the travel of a substance without passing through the phospholipid bilayer/ membrane?

New cards
16
<p>cargo</p>
New cards
<p>cargo</p>

cargo

What are the components of the lumen called?

New cards
17
<ol><li><p>they must take up appropriate cargo (budding stage)</p></li><li><p>must fuse with appropriate target membrane (fusion stage)</p></li></ol>
New cards
<ol><li><p>they must take up appropriate cargo (budding stage)</p></li><li><p>must fuse with appropriate target membrane (fusion stage)</p></li></ol>
  1. they must take up appropriate cargo (budding stage)

  2. must fuse with appropriate target membrane (fusion stage)

What are the two rules of transport vesicles selectivity?

New cards
18
New cards

The budding stage

starting to take up the necessary cargo to bud off the vesicle

New cards
19
New cards

Fusion stage

The transport vesicle then buds off and after uncoating, tethering and docking, it will fuse to the target membrane.

New cards
20
New cards

secretory pathway

What pathway refers to the ER, Golgi apparatus and the vesicles that travel in between them as well as the cell membrane and lysosomes. It's the pathway by which the cell secretes proteins into the extracellular environment.

New cards
21
New cards

Exocytosis

a secretory pathway that delivers newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the plasma membrane

New cards
22
New cards

Endocytosis

the cellular process in which substances are brought into the cell.

New cards
23
New cards

Endocytic pathway

Takes things in through the plasma membrane. The cells remove a region of the plasma membrane and delivers these to the lysosomes where they are degraded in internal compartments. The material to be internalized is surrounded by an area of cell membrane, which then buds off inside the cell to form a vesicle containing the ingested material. Includes pinocytosis and phagocytosis.

New cards
24
New cards

endosomes

What are these internal compartments called?

New cards
25
New cards

formed by the invagination of the plasma membrane and are triggered by the activation of cell surface receptor.

How are endosomes formed?

New cards
26
New cards

Invagination

the process of a surface folding in on itself to form a cavity, pouch or tube.

New cards
27
New cards

they control the sorting of activated cell surface receptors either to the plasma membrane for further use or to the lysosome for degradation.

Why are endosomes important?

New cards
28
New cards

endosomes

membrane bound organelles, internal compartments where things get degraded and can also be used to capture nutrients.

New cards
29
New cards

lysosome (digestive organelles)

start with the plasma membrane, which is then removed to bring in the vesicle. Often these vesicles will then fuse with a __________ where the content will then be degraded in the endosome.

New cards
30
New cards

coated vesicles

vesicles that bud from membranes and have a coat on their cytosolic surface (surface facing extracellular environment).

New cards
31
New cards

shed its coat

After budding, the vesicle will __________, which allows the membrane to interact directly with the target membrane to fuse with it.

New cards
32
New cards

where a vesicle is going to fuse

What is a target membrane?

New cards
33
New cards

clathrin coated vesicles

these are the most popular type of coated vesicles, their outer coat is made of clathrin

New cards
34
New cards

exocytosis of clathrin coated vesicle

they bud from the Golgi apparatus on the outward secretory pathway. What is this process called?

New cards
35
New cards

endocytosis of clathrin coated vesicles

bud also from the plasma membrane on the inward path, which creates a clathrin coated pit. What is this process called?

New cards
36
New cards

COP coated vesicles (COPI or COPII)

Transport vesicles that transport molecules from the ER to the Golgi and the Golgi to the Golgi (exocytosis)

New cards
37
<p>Clathrin (dark green structure)</p>
New cards
<p>Clathrin (dark green structure)</p>

Clathrin (dark green structure)

assemble into basket-like network on the cytosolic surface on the membrane and this starts to shape the membrane into a vesicle

New cards
38
<p>Dynamin (yellow structure)</p>
New cards
<p>Dynamin (yellow structure)</p>

Dynamin (yellow structure)

GTP binding protein that assembles into a ring around the neck of the invaginated pit and pinches off/ constricts the vesicle from the parent membrane. Uses the power from the phosphate to constrict off of the plasma membrane.

New cards
39
<p>adaptins (light green structure)</p>
New cards
<p>adaptins (light green structure)</p>

adaptins (light green structure)

second class of coat proteins that helps to select the cargo for transport

New cards
40
New cards

adaptin

binds to your cargo and these cargo receptors bind to ________ and helps deliver it to your transport vesicle.

New cards
41
New cards

adaptin

What binds to clathrin?

New cards
42
New cards

in the cytosol

When does the clathrin coat disassemble?

New cards
43
New cards

vesicle docking

once the naked vesicle is within the cell, you have to dock the vesicles at a different location. use motor proteins to move vesicles along the cytoskeleton.

New cards
44
New cards

Rab proteins

What are the markers on vesicles called?

New cards
45
<p>tethering proteins</p>
New cards
<p>tethering proteins</p>

tethering proteins

What are receptors on the organelle called that dock vesicles?

New cards
46
<p>tethering protein</p>
New cards
<p>tethering protein</p>

tethering protein

Rab proteins bind to _________ on the target membrane.

New cards
47
New cards

ensures that transport vesicles fuse with the correct membrane

Unique combination of rab proteins/ tethering proteins ensures what?

New cards
48
<p>vesicle-SNARE</p>
New cards
<p>vesicle-SNARE</p>

vesicle-SNARE

What does v-SNARE stand for?

New cards
49
<p>tethering-SNARE</p>
New cards
<p>tethering-SNARE</p>

tethering-SNARE

What does t-SNARE stand for?

New cards
50
<p>SNARE</p>
New cards
<p>SNARE</p>

SNARE

provides additional recognition as transmembrane proteins. The tethering protein captures a vesicles by grabbing hold of the Rab protein.

New cards
51
<p>vesicle, target membrane</p>
New cards
<p>vesicle, target membrane</p>

vesicle, target membrane

SNAREs are on the ___________ and the _______.

New cards
52
<p>vSNARE, tSNARE</p>
New cards
<p>vSNARE, tSNARE</p>

vSNARE, tSNARE

_______ and ______ work together to firmly dock the vesicle in place on the target membrane. They also make sure that the vesicle is binding to the correct membrane.

New cards
53
<p>exocytosis</p>
New cards
<p>exocytosis</p>

exocytosis

proteins delivered from the ER to the Golgi to the cell surface via transport vesicles

New cards
54
<p>transport vesicles, ER</p>
New cards
<p>transport vesicles, ER</p>

transport vesicles, ER

These ____________ then fuse with the plasma membrane, and are then covalently modified in the ______ before leaving the cell.

New cards
55
<p>disulfide bonds, glycosylation, and protein folding</p>
New cards
<p>disulfide bonds, glycosylation, and protein folding</p>

disulfide bonds, glycosylation, and protein folding

What are examples of some covalent modifications that take place in the ER?

New cards
56
<p>Golgi apparatus</p>
New cards
<p>Golgi apparatus</p>

Golgi apparatus

has a collection of flattened membrane enclosed sacs and each stack consists of two distinct faces

New cards
57
<p>cisternae</p>
New cards
<p>cisternae</p>

cisternae

What are these flattened membrane enclosed sacs called?

New cards
58
<p>cis face</p>
New cards
<p>cis face</p>

cis face

Which face of the Golgi apparatus is next to the ER and allows entry into the Golgi?

New cards
59
<p>trans face</p>
New cards
<p>trans face</p>

trans face

Which face of the Golgi apparatus points towards the plasma membrane and allows things to exit from the Golgi?

New cards
60
<p>cis, ER</p>
New cards
<p>cis, ER</p>

cis, ER

Proteins enter through the _______ face of the Golgi network via transport vesicles from the _______?

New cards
61
<p>cisternae</p>
New cards
<p>cisternae</p>

cisternae

Proteins then travel through the ________ through transport vesicles from one cisterna to the next.

New cards
62
New cards

trans, plasma membrane

Proteins exit through the _________ face of the Golgi network destined for the _________ or another organelle.

New cards
63
<p>The secretory vesicle</p>
New cards
<p>The secretory vesicle</p>

The secretory vesicle

What tells you to release the secretory protein?

New cards
64
<p>constitutive exocytosis pathway</p>
New cards
<p>constitutive exocytosis pathway</p>

constitutive exocytosis pathway

a steady stream of vesicles bud from the trans Golgi network to the plasma membrane, where the plasma membrane supplies the vesicles with newly made lipids and proteins.

New cards
65
<p>secretion</p>
New cards
<p>secretion</p>

secretion

The vesicle carries soluble proteins to the cell surface to be released in the extra cellular fluid, what is this process called? *Keep in mind that the vesicle stays attached to the cell surface and that it contributes to the extracellular matrix.

New cards
66
<p>ER, Golgi</p>
New cards
<p>ER, Golgi</p>

ER, Golgi

For the constitutive exocytosis pathway to occur, there has to be vesicles coming from the _________ to the ________.

New cards
67
New cards

regulated exocytosis pathway

This pathway is not always on and is important for secretory cells. This pathway awaits signal instructions before the vesicle leaves the trans Golgi network with the cargo.

New cards
68
<p>Golgi</p>
New cards
<p>Golgi</p>

Golgi

The ___________ packages cargo at much higher concentrations.

New cards
69
<p>regulated exocytosis pathway</p>
New cards
<p>regulated exocytosis pathway</p>

regulated exocytosis pathway

This pathway is important for the secretion or release of hormones, mucus, and digestive enzymes (extracellular signals like hormones or neurotransmitters).

New cards
70
<p>closest to the ER</p>
New cards
<p>closest to the ER</p>

closest to the ER

Where is the cis face of the Golgi located?

New cards
71
<p>after medial region</p>
New cards
<p>after medial region</p>

after medial region

Where is the trans face of the Golgi located?

New cards
72
New cards

endocytosis

Cells that take up fluid and molecules, small portion of the plasma membrane buds inward and pinched off to form the endocytic vesicle, and many of these become endosomes. This process is called?

New cards
73
New cards

the endosome

Where is the ingested material delivered to?

New cards
74
New cards

plasma membrane, lysosomes

The ingested material delivered to the endosome is then recycled back to the ___________ or is sent to the ___________(digestive organelle) to be degraded.

New cards
75
New cards

Pinocytosis Pino=drinking

cellular drinking for fluid molecules. The ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane. One type of endocytosis.

New cards
76
New cards

Phagocytosis Phago=eating

Cellular eating. A process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle, giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome. One type of endocytosis.

New cards
77
New cards

Phagosomes Phago = eating

large vesicles brought in, therefore creating this internal compartment

New cards
78
New cards

Phagocytotic cells Phagocytes (neutrophils and monocytes)

Immune cells that play a critical role in both the early and late stages of immune responses.

New cards
79
New cards

Macrophages

defense mechanisms engulf or take up smaller cells. They digest and break them down. *Once they are in the cell, they are then delivered to the endosome. One type of endocytosis. a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection.

New cards
80
New cards

Autophagy

the cell recycles components. The mitochondria breaks it down and the plasma membrane recycles it. It's also a lysosome dependent process (digestive organelle).

New cards
81
New cards

to promote cell survival

An autophagy performs self-eating ____________. Also known as canabolism of a cell.

New cards
82
New cards

development of autophagy

helps reconstruct cells that are differentiating and not dividing, but still need to be maintained

New cards
83
New cards

autophagosome

fusion of small vesicles into a double membrane around the organelle and can fuse with the lysosome.

New cards
84
<p>receptor mediated endocytosis</p>
New cards
<p>receptor mediated endocytosis</p>

receptor mediated endocytosis

a means to import macromolecules from the extracellular fluid that involves Clathrin coats on the vesicles. Selectively concentrating material mechanism as the vesicles are brought into the cell. Uptake of cholesterol needed to make new membranes.

New cards
85
<p>Cholesterol</p>
New cards
<p>Cholesterol</p>

Cholesterol

___________ depends on receptor mediated endocytosis.

New cards
86
<p>low-density lipoproteins (LDL)</p>
New cards
<p>low-density lipoproteins (LDL)</p>

low-density lipoproteins (LDL)

Cholesterol is extremely insoluble, transported to the bloodstream bound to ________________.

New cards
87
<p>liver</p>
New cards
<p>liver</p>

liver

Cholesterol-LDL is secreted by the _______ and binds to receptors on the cell surface.

New cards
88
<p>Cholesterol</p>
New cards
<p>Cholesterol</p>

Cholesterol

_____________ is essential to cell membrane health.

New cards
89
<p>Receptor mediated endocytosis</p>
New cards
<p>Receptor mediated endocytosis</p>

Receptor mediated endocytosis

Ingest receptor-LDL complexes and deliver them to the endosomes. LDL then dissociates from the receptor and the receptor is recycled back to the plasma membrane. What is this process known as?

New cards
90
<p>lysosomes</p>
New cards
<p>lysosomes</p>

lysosomes

LDL goes back to the _____________.

New cards
91
<p>hydrolytic enzymes</p>
New cards
<p>hydrolytic enzymes</p>

hydrolytic enzymes

LDL is broken down into ___________ in the lysosomes.

New cards
92
<p>cytosol</p>
New cards
<p>cytosol</p>

cytosol

Cholesterol is then released from the LDL and will translocate to the ________. Now the LDL is available for membrane synthesis.

New cards
93
<p>cholesterol</p>
New cards
<p>cholesterol</p>

cholesterol

The lysosomes release _______ to be used in the plasma membrane.

New cards
94
<p>acidic</p>
New cards
<p>acidic</p>

acidic

Lysosomes are very _________ with their hydrolytic enzymes that use water to break down bonds.

New cards
95
<p>LDL gene</p>
New cards
<p>LDL gene</p>

LDL gene

Genetic pre-disposition to high cholesterol means that individuals have inherited defective versions of the _______, which causes the receptor o be missing or non-functional.

New cards
96
<p>atherosclerosis</p>
New cards
<p>atherosclerosis</p>

atherosclerosis

Cells deficient in taking up LDL-bound cholesterol, causes cholesterol to stay in the blood or the buildup of cholesterol (leading to higher levels of cholesterol), which leads to a disease called _____________.

New cards
97
<p>a lysosome-dependent process that recycles components of itself to survive</p>
New cards
<p>a lysosome-dependent process that recycles components of itself to survive</p>

a lysosome-dependent process that recycles components of itself to survive

What is autophagy?

New cards
98
<p>cellular eating The process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle like bacterial cells or viruses, thus giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome.</p>
New cards
<p>cellular eating The process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle like bacterial cells or viruses, thus giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome.</p>

cellular eating The process by which a cell uses its plasma membrane to engulf a large particle like bacterial cells or viruses, thus giving rise to an internal compartment called the phagosome.

What is phagocytosis?

New cards
99
<p>lysosomes</p>
New cards
<p>lysosomes</p>

lysosomes

Where can free cholesterol and hydrolytic enzymes be found?

New cards
100
<p>lysosome</p>
New cards
<p>lysosome</p>

lysosome

This organelle is very acidic, uses a pump to maintain its H+ environment (against the gradient, so it needs ATP).

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)