AP Environmental Science- Unit 8 Part II Water Resources and Waste

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aquifers

a permeable layer of rock and sediment that contains groundwater

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confined aquifer

an aquifer that is surrounded by impermeable rock that impedes water flow

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unconfined aquifer

an aquifer made of porous water covered by soil out of which water can easily flow

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water table

the uppermost level at which water in a given area fully saturates rock or soil

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groundwater recharge

a process by which water percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer

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spring

a natural source of water formed when water from an aquifer percolates up to the ground surface

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artesian well

a well created by drilling a hole into a confined aquifer

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Nearly what percent of Earth’s percent is covered by water?

70%

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Cone of depression

An area lacking groundwater due to rapid withdrawal from a well. (In other words, if a deep well is adjacent to two other more shallow wells, the deep well could consume so much water that the shallow wells will no longer be able to reach the level of the groundwater)

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Saltwater intrusion

an infiltration of salt water in an area where groundwater pressure has been reduced from extensive drilling of wells

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How does saltwater intrusion work?

When large amounts of wells are pumping groundwater out of a coastal area, the pressure of the freshwater against the salt water decreases below sea level allowing the salt water to infiltrate into the area of rapid pumping, leading to saltier groundwater.

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impermeable surfaces

pavement or buildings that do not allow water penetration

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floodplain

the land adjacent to a river

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levee

an enlarged bank built up on each side of a river

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dike

a structure built to prevent ocean waters from flooding adjacent land

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dam

a barrier that runs across a river or stream to control the flow of water

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reservoir

the water body created by damming a river or stream

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fish ladder

a stair like structure that allows migrating fish to get around a dam

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Uses of dams include

human consumption of reservoir water, recreation, generation of electricity, flood control.

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aqueduct

a canal, ditch or pipe used to carry water from one location to another

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desalination

the process of removing salt from salt water

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distillation

a process of desalination in which water is boiled and the resulting steam is captured and condensed to yield pure water

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reverse osmosis

a process of distillation in which water is forced through a thin semipermeable membrane at high pressure

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water footprint

the total daily per capita use of fresh water

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_____ is the largest use of water in the world.

Agriculture

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Furrow irrigation

An ancient type of irrigation where farmers dig trenches adjacent to crops and flood them to supply the crops with water

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Flood irrigation

flooding an entire field with water and letting the water soak in evenly

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Spray irrigation

Water is sprayed up into the air and drops on plants mimicking precipitation conditions; inefficient, most water evaporates.

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drip irrigation

a slowly dripping hose that is laid on the ground or buried beneath the soil.

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hydroponic agriculture

the cultivation of plants in greenhouse conditions by immersing roots in a nutrient-dense solution

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Nearly three quarters of water in the US is used for

thermoelectric power and agriculture.

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Most consumptive use of indoor water is

toilet.

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tiered water-pricing systems

a water allocation system that charges rates that increase with the amount of water consumed

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xeriscaping

a style of landscaping that removes water-intensive vegetation from lawns and replaces it with more water efficient native landscaping

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Furrow irrigation is about _____ efficient

65%

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Flood irrigation is about _____ efficient

70-80%

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Spray irrigation is about _____ efficient

75-95%

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Drip irrigation is about _____ efficient

95%

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Refined copper requires _____ litres of water to manufacture per kg.

440

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Aluminum requires _____ litres of water to manufacture per kg.

410

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Steel requires _____ litres of water to manufacture per kg.

260

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Paper requires _____ litres of water to manufacture per kg.

125

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After Jan 1994, toilets must use ______ litres or less per flush.

6

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wastewater

water produced by livestock operations and human activities, including human sewage from toilets and grey water from bathing and washing of clothes and dishes

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point source

a distinct location from which pollution is directly produced

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non-point source

a diffuse area that produces pollution

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biochemical oxygen demand

the amount of oxygen a quantity of water uses over a period of time at a specific temperature

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Eutrophication

a phenomenon in which a body of water becomes rich in nutrients

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Cultural eutrophication

an increase in fertility in a body of water, the result of anthropogenic inputs of nutrients

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indicator species

a species that indicates whether or not disease causing pathogens are likely to be present

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fecal-coliform bacteria

a group of generally harmless microorganisms in human intestines that can serve as an indicator species for potentially harmful microorganisms associated with contaminated sewage

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septic system

a relatively small and simple sewage treatment system, made up of a septic tank and a leach field, often used for homes in rural areas

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septic tank

a large container that receives wastewater from a house as part of a septic system

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sludge

solid waste material from wastewater

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septage

a layer of fairly clear water found in the middle of a septic tank

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leach field

a component of a septic system made up of underground pipes laid out below the surface of the ground

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manure lagoon

human-made pond lined with rubber built to handle large quantities of manure produced by livestock

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Steps of a wastewater treatment plant

  1. wastewater arrives at a wastewater treatment plant via pipes from municipal areas

  2. large debris and particulates are filtered out by screens and sent to landfills

  3. primary treatment allows particulates to sink to the bottom of the p treatment tank and remaining water transfers to secondary treatment

  4. the water is aerated in the secondary treatment to allow aerobic bacteria to take over reducing the foul odours of the water. particulates continue to compile in the bottom.

  5. all particulates are sent to tubes where they become thickened sludge and are transported away from the treatment plant

  6. water from secondary treatment enters the last stage, where it is sterilised either through UV radiation, chlorine, or ozone.

  7. water is now “reclaimed” and can be dumped into rivers or lakes, used for irrigation, etc.

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Source of lead

Lead-lined pipes, materials that contain lead such as brass fittings. Water with high chloride concentration will erode the lead pipes rapidly leading to lead contamination in drinking water.

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Effect of lead

attacks the nervous system and can lead to kidney damage.

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Source of arsenic

occurs naturally in Earth’s crust and can seep into groundwater, this can be amplified by mining or artesian drilling

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effects of arsenic

cancers of the skin, lungs, kidneys and bladder.

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sources of mercury

2/3 come from burning of coal, also incineration of garbage, hazardous waste and medical, dental & laboratory supplies. Petroleum exploration

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Acid deposition

acids deposited on Earth as rain and snow or as gases and particles that attach to the surfaces of plants, soil, and water.

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Sources of acid deposition

industrial plants burning coal and releasing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the air.

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Abandon coal mines will overflow with groundwater and what will happen?

The pyrite in the coal mine will break down releasing Fe and H into the water making it more acidic, this water will seep upwards and can contaminate drinking water and lead to acidification of natural environments as well as acid mine drainage.

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____% of all oil in water worldwide originates from natural seeps.

45

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Ways oil pollution occurs

Offshore oil drilling, oil spills

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Ways oil clean up occurs

containment, clumping, dispersion, burning, bacteria. CCDBB

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How can human activity increase sediment load in rivers?

Deforestation around riparian zones, construction of buildings, plowing

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thermal polution

nonchemical water pollution that occurs when human activities cause a substantial change in the temperature of the water.

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thermal shock

a dramatic change in water temperature that can kill organisms

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Clean Water Act

Legislation that supports the “protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water” by maintaining and, when necessary, restoring the chemical, physical, and biological properties of surface waters.

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Safe Drinking Water Act

Legislation that sets the national standards for safe drinking water.

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Maximum contaminant levels

The standard for safe drinking water established by the EPA under the SDWA

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waste

material outputs from a system that are not useful or consumed

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planned obsolescence

the process of designing a product so that it will need to be replaced within a few years.

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municipal solid waste (MSW)

refuse collected by municipalities from households, small businesses and institutions.

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waste stream

the flow of solid waste that is recycled, incinerated, placed in a solid waste landfill, or disposed of in another way

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reduce, reuse, recycle

a popular phrase promoting the idea of diverting materials from the waste stream.

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source reduction

an approach to waste management that seeks to cut waste by reducing the use of potential waste materials in the early stages of design and manufacturing.

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reuse

using a product or material that was intended to be discarded.

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what is the most environmentally beneficial “r”

reuse

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Not purchasing CDs at all is an example of source reduction on the

individual level.

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Less wrapping in CD packaging is an example of source reduction on the

corporate level.

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examples of close looped recycled items

glass used for bottles and jars, aluminum used for cans and tins

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examples of open looped recycled items

plastic water bottles- fibers can be used to form fleeces

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composting

creation of organic matter (humus) by decomposition under controlled conditions to produce an organic-rich material that enhances soil structure, cation exchange capacity, and fertility.

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industrial composting steps

waste is dumped in tipping area

  1. compostable and noncompostable materials are separated

  2. noncompostable material sent to landfill

  3. compostable material sorted into dry (brown) and wet (green) vegetation and mixes them in the proper ratio to assure decomposition bacteria are happy (C:N=30:1)

  4. compost is aerated by mixing

  5. (time)

  6. composted material is allowed to cure

  7. finished compost is transported for use

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leachate

leachate is a liquid that contains elevated levels of pollutants as a result of having passed through municipal solid waste (MSW)

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sanitary landfills

an engineered ground facility designed to hold MSW with as little contamination of the surrounding enviro as possible

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steps of sanitary landfill

  1. leachate collection systems built surrounding the bottom perimeters of the landfill to collect toxic leachate emitted by MSW

  2. solid waste transported to landfill

  3. solid waste dumped into landfill

  4. landfill reaches capacity

  5. before step 2. or after step 4: methane extraction systems built into the landfill to collect explosive methane built up from anaerobic decomposition

  6. landfill capped and covered with soil then planted with vegetation

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examples of things that should go into landfills

plastics and papers, juice boxes, glass and plastics

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what should not go into landfills

aluminum, metals, household cleaners, oil-based paints, consumer electronics, antifreeze, food and garden scraps, yard waste

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tipping fee

a fee charged for disposing of material in a landfill or incinerator

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siting

the designation of a landfill location, typically through a regulatory process involving studies, written reports, and public hearings

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NIMBY

not-in-my-backyard, related to landfills and nuclear power plants

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Incineration

the process of burning waste materials to reduce volume and mass, sometimes to generate electricity and heat

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Ash

the residual nonorganic material that does not combust during incineration

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Bottom ash

residue collected at the bottom of the combustion chamber in a furnace

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