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What are the three types of lipids in the body?
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What is the most prevalent lipid in both dietary intake of fat and in body fat storage?
What are the 3 important functions of cholesterol in the body?
Do we need to consume cholesterol?
No, body can make cholesterol
What is the role of dietary cholesterol on blood lipids?
The relationship between dietary cholesterol and blood cholesterol has been inconsistent
Health benefit of monounsaturated fats
Help lower LDL cholesterol and may have help to raise HDL cholesterol
Food sources of monounsaturated fats
olive, peanut, canola oils; and high-oleic safflower and sunflower oils, nuts and avocados
What are the two essential fatty acids (polyunsaturated)?
Linoleic acid (omega 6)
Alpha-linoleic acid (omega 3)
Why is the intake of essential fatty acids necessary for health?
They are used to build cell membranes and the covering of nerves
Sources of linoleic (omega 6) fatty acids?
walnuts, seeds, safflower, soybean, sunflower, walnut, and corn oils
What are the 3 types of Alpha-linoleic (omega-3) fatty acids?
ALA- Alpha-linoleic (plant)
EPA- eicosapentaenoic acid (animal)
DHA- docosahexaenoic acid (animal)
Sources of ALA
plant oils, nuts and seeds
Sources of EPA
Sources of DHA
fish/seafood, grass fed meat, dairy, omega-3 enriched eggs
What is the challenge if the only source of omega-3 is plant bases?
Must be converted to EPA and DHA before it is biologically active and can be utilized for something other than energy (1-10% is converted)
What is the potential concern with the current American diet that tends to be a high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids?
It is believed that omega-6 is pro-inflammatory while omega-3 is anti-inflammatory
What does the research say regarding linoleic acid and its impact on health?
a higher ratio of omega-6:omega-3 may support chronic inflammation
What does some of the current research say related to whole dairy food products as discussed in class?
Several foods rich in saturated fatty acids are not associated with increased CVD or diabetes risk
There is no evidence that current population wide arbitrary upper limits on saturated fatty acid consumption in the U.S. will prevent CVD or reduce mortality
Differentiate between the nutrient content of egg whites versus egg yolks
Egg white: 3.6 grams of protein and 25 kcal
Egg yolk: 2.4 grams of protein and 50 kcal and ALL OF THE OTHER NUTRIENTS TO INCLUDE OMEGA-3
Are plant-based beef substitutes healthier than unprocessed beef?
No necessarily, calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium is higher
Hypertension sodium intake
Elevated lipid profile
may benefit from replacing less healthy fats with more healthy fats, generally be prescribed statins
all be on statins
Public recommendation of sodium intake
What percentage of salt consists of sodium?
NaCl is 40% sodium
1 teaspoon of salt= how many mg of sodium?
What are the levels of sodium restrictions most recommended for individuals with hypertension?
reducing sodium intake is generally agreed to reduce blood pressure, at least people with hypertension- some observational studies suggest a U-shaped curve
What is the estimated intake of daily sodium in the U.S.?
What is the breakdown for the percentage of sodium in the diet that comes from processed and restaurant foods?
What is the breakdown for the percentage of sodium in the diet that comes from cooking or eating?
What is the breakdown for the percentage of sodium in the diet that occurs naturally in foods?
What is the potassium recommendation for adults?
Why do we not recommend Potassium supplements without physician supervision?
Supplements not recommended because potassium levels too high or too low can cause a heart attack
Appears to be a healthy option for lowering risk or managing heart disease, T2D and other risk factors- also help in lowing weight (plant focused diet)
designed to lower blood pressure, encourages daily intake, encourages meat more often (less than 6 servings a day)
High in calcium, potassium and magnesium which have all been to show lower BP
What was the origin of the idea for promoting alcohol consumption (red wine) for health?
In the 1980s- observed that the French have relatively low rates of heart disease despite their diet of rich, fatty foods (included red wine)
What is the specific component of red wine that is credited with its potential health benefits?
Resveratrol- acts like an antioxidant
What other foods have resveratrol?
skins and seeds of grapes, blueberries, cranberries, cocoa/dark chocolate and peanuts/pistachios
What would we recommend alcohol consumption to someone who doesn’t consume alcohol?
do not recommend that individuals who do not drink alcohol start drinking
Moderate alcohol intake for men/women
2 for men, 1 for women
What do recommendations say related to sleep?
Sleep is associated with coronary heart disease and many of the other seven components to lower risks
What are the 3 health factors that are an important component of CVD health?
high BP, high cholesterol, smoking
any movement that is carries out by the muscles that require energy
planned, structured, repetitive and intentional movement- goal is to improve physical fitness
activity in which the body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner- have 3 components: intensity, frequency, duration
physical activity, including exercise, that increases skeletal muscle strength, power, endurance, and mass- has 3 components: intensity, frequency, sets and repetition
physical activity that produces an impact or tension on the bones that promotes bone growth and strength (weight-bearing or weight-loading)
Talk test during moderate intensity versus vigorous intensity
moderate-intensity can talk, but not sing
vigorous intensity cannot say more than a few words without pausing
What is the recommended range of minutes for physical activity for adults to attain the most benefits? Children 6-17?
150-300 minutes a week for adults
60 min per day for children
Exercise and weight loss
Diet is more important
98% report they modified their food intake
94% increased physical activity
Exercise and weight maintenance
90% reported they exercise about 60 min/day
What level of sedentary activity would some be at high risk versus low risk?
High: sitting 8-11 hours per day
Low: less than 4 hours per day
Questions to ask patient to assist them in purchasing best body worn devices
How reliable is it?
Is it affordable?
How much information do you want?
What goals do you want to achieve from this device?
How many miles and minutes of physical activity are represented by 10,000 steps?
10,000 steps equals approximately 5 miles and represents 30 minutes of physical activity
What are the 2 sources for glucose in the human body?
The food we eat
liver produces glucose as needed
What complication has the greatest risk for pre-diabetes and both T1 and T2?
Dyslipidemia/ heart disease
Normal fasting glucose
Prediabetes fasting glucose
Diabetes fasting glucose
Why is pre-diabetes taken seriously?
70% of people with prediabetes will eventually progress to T2D
the individual can stop taking medications required to manage blood glucose levels
What is the goal of the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDDP)
improve the treatment and outcomes for people at risk of developing T2DM
What criteria must be met to qualify for the NDDP
over the age of 18
BMI > 24
Diagnosis of pre-diabetes OR history of gestational diabetes
What are the weight loss and physical activity goals the NDDP?
7% of body weight lost and at least 150 minutes of physical activity a week
What are the 5 components for the management of T2D?
weight loss/controlling weight
healthy eating pattern
moderate intake of carbohydrates (less than 45% of calories)
monitor blood glucose and medications
What percentage of calories come from carbohydrates in the majority of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets?
Net carbs/ how it is determined
active or impact carbs- subtract the grams of fiber and sugar alcohols from the total carbs
not a dangerous state- achieved by eating a low carb diet and leaves ketones in the blood stream
very high levels of ketones in the blood, can cause death. Occurs in diabetes or people who are starving/sick
How does a state of ketosis assist with weight loss (3)?
more fat burn, reduced hunger, stabilized blood sugar
How do individuals determine if they are in a state of ketosis?
urine strips or breath meter
Difference between Atkins and ketogenic diet
While both are high fat and low carb diets, atkins emphasizes more protein than a ketogenic diet
whole foods, no processed foods, lean protein, vegetables, nuts and seeds
begin to take supplements and consume high fat, high calorie foods for 2 days
restrict caloric intake to 500 calories/day for 2-6 weeks (still taking supplements)
stop taking supplements and gradually increase caloric intake but avoid sugar and starch for 3 weeks
3 basic types of intermittent fasting
alternate day fasting (1-2 days/week of complete fasting)
whole day fasting (5-2 method)(5 days with no restrictions and 2 days with 500-600 kcal)
Time restricted fasting (16-8 method)(most common- 16 hours of fasting and 8 hours of eating)
Difference between GOLO and other weight loss programs?
GOLO is a supplement that is taken 3 times a day with meals
Noom weight loss program
App-based weight loss program rooted in psychology
guides behavior changes/personalized
dedicated health coach and virtual support group
includes pedometer and health log
refers to a weight change less than 3%
What is the definition of size acceptance?
Refers to the fact that as human beings we come in all types of shapes and sized and out acceptance of that can reduce weight stigma and ur obsession with weight
What are the 5 basic components of Health At Every Size®?
eating for well-being
What is the relationship between Health At Every Size® and healthy weight?
Healthy weight is weight appropriate for body type, something that could also be managed long term
What is the definition of obesity based on the Canadian Adult Obesity Clinical guidelines?
a complex chronic disease in which abnormal or excess body fat (adiposity) impairs health, increases the risk of long term medical complications and reduce lifespan