Paper 2 - Summary

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What is the function of a red blood cell?

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What is the function of a red blood cell?

Carries oxygen

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Why do red blood cells have a biconcave shape?

Increase surface area so they can carry more oxygen

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Why don’t red blood cells have a nucleus?

More space to carry oxygen

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What is the red pigment in red blood cells called?

Haemoglobin

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What element does haemoglobin contain?

Iron

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What is the function of haemoglobin?

Oxygen binds to it

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What is the haemoglobin called when it is carrying oxygen?

Oxyhaemoglobin

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What is the haemoglobin called when it is not carrying oxygen?

Deoxyhaemoglobin

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What is the function of platelets in the blood?

Clot blood

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Name the liquid part of the blood that everything else floats in.

Plasma

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What are the substances carried in the blood?

  • Oxygen

  • Glucose

  • Amino acids

  • Carbon dioxide

  • Hormones

  • Urea

  • Protein

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Which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart?

Arteries

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Is the blood under high or low pressure in the artery?

High

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Why do arteries contain thick layers of muscle?

Strengthen them

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Why do arteries contain elastic fibres?

To allow recoil

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Which blood vessels carry substances to the organs?

Capillaries

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Why are capillaries narrow?

They can squeeze between the gaps between cells (every cell gets substances)

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Why do capillaries have permeable walls?

So substances can diffuse in and out

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How many cells thick is a capillary wall?

1

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Which substances are carried to cells in capillaries?

  • Oxygen

  • Glucose

  • Amino acids

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What substances are removed from cells by capillaries?

  • Carbon dioxide

  • Urea

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Which blood vessels carry blood back to the heart?

Veins

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Is blood pressure high or low in the veins?

Low

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Why do veins have valves?

Prevent backflow

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Do veins have a small or big lumen?

Big

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Why do veins have a big lumen?

Helps blood flow

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What is a double circulatory system?

Heart pumps blood to the lungs and to the rest of the body

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Where does the right side of the heart pump blood to?

Lungs

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Which specific blood vessel carries blood from:

heart → lungs

Pulmonary artery

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Which specific blood vessel carries blood from:

lungs → heart

Pulmonary vein

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Which specific blood vessel carries blood from:

heart → organs

Aorta

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Is the aorta a vein or an artery?

Artery

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Which specific blood vessel carries blood from:

organs → heart

Vena cava

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Is the vena cava a vein or an artery?

Vein

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When blood goes:

pulmonary vein → heart

Which part of the heart does it enter after?

Left atrium

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Where does blood flow to after the left atrium?

Left ventricle

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What does blood pass through in between:

left atrium → left ventricle

Atrio-ventricular (AV) valves

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Which blood vessel does the blood enter after the left ventricle?

Aorta

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What does blood pass through in between:

ventricle → artery

Semi-lunar valves

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What blood vessels does blood enter when it passes through the organs?

Capillaries

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Which substances transfer to cells from the blood inside the capillaries?

  • Oxygen

  • Glucose

  • Amino acids

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Which substances leave cells and go into the capillaries?

  • Carbon dioxide

  • Water

  • Urea (from liver)

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Which blood vessel does blood enter when:

capillaries → heart

Vena cava

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Where does the blood go after the vena cava?

Right atrium

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Where does blood flow after the right atrium?

Right ventricle

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Where does blood flow after the right ventricle?

Pulmonary artery

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Which side of the heart has a thicker wall?

LeftWh

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Why does the left side of the heart have a thicker wall than the right?

Blood needs to be pumped a further distance, so it is pumped at a higher pressure

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What is cardiac output?

Volume of blood pumped out the heart per minute

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What is the equation for cardiac output?

heart rate (bpm) × stroke volume

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Why do organs need glucose and oxygen?

Aerobic respiration

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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?

oxygen + glucose → carbon dioxide + water + energy

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What is the balanced, symbol equation for aerobic respiration?

6O₂ + C₆H₁₂O₆ → 6CO₂ +6H₂O + energy

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Is energy made or released during respiration?

Released

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Where does aerobic respiration take place in the cells?

Mitochondria

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Which type of cells contract during exercise?

Muscle cells

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What do muscle cells use in order to contract?

Energy

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What process releases energy inside muscle cells?

Aerobic respiration

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What substances do muscle cells need in order to respire?

  • Oxygen

  • Glucose

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<p>What is this piece of equipment called?</p>
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<p>What is this piece of equipment called?</p>

What is this piece of equipment called?

Respirometer

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<p>What is this piece of equipment used for?</p>
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<p>What is this piece of equipment used for?</p>

What is this piece of equipment used for?

Measuring respiration rate

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<p>What gas will the insects be using when respiring in the tube?</p>
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<p>What gas will the insects be using when respiring in the tube?</p>

What gas will the insects be using when respiring in the tube?

Oxygen

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<p>What gas will the insects be producing when respiring in the tube?</p>
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<p>What gas will the insects be producing when respiring in the tube?</p>

What gas will the insects be producing when respiring in the tube?

Carbon dioxide

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<p>Which chemical absorbs carbon dioxide so that we can identify how much oxygen the insects are using up during this experiment?</p>
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<p>Which chemical absorbs carbon dioxide so that we can identify how much oxygen the insects are using up during this experiment?</p>

Which chemical absorbs carbon dioxide so that we can identify how much oxygen the insects are using up during this experiment?

Sodium hydroxide

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<p>Which direction will the liquid move when the insects use up oxygen?</p>
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<p>Which direction will the liquid move when the insects use up oxygen?</p>

Which direction will the liquid move when the insects use up oxygen?

Left

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<p>What is the equation for the rate that the liquid moves during the experiment?</p>
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<p>What is the equation for the rate that the liquid moves during the experiment?</p>

What is the equation for the rate that the liquid moves during the experiment?

distance ÷ time

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<p>How should you ensure the insect’s safety when using a respirometer?</p>
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<p>How should you ensure the insect’s safety when using a respirometer?</p>

How should you ensure the insect’s safety when using a respirometer?

Don’t leave them in the tube too long (or they will run out of oxygen and die)

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Which type of exercise results in muscle cells not being supplied with enough oxygen?

Vigorous exercise

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What type of respiration do muscle cells do when they don’t have enough oxygen?

Anaerobic

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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?

glucose → lactic acid

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What does a build-up of lactic acid cause?

Cramps

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Do plants carry out respiration?

Yes

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Why do plants have mitochondria?

Aerobic respiration

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Are there times when plant cells do not get enough oxygen?

Yes

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What type of respiration do plants do when they don’t get enough oxygen?

Anaerobic respiration

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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants?

glucose → ethanol + carbon dioxide

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Which organ monitors the concentration of glucose in the blood?

Pancreas

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What hormone is released by the pancreas when the blood glucose concentration is higher than normal?

Insulin

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Name the target organ/cells for insulin.

  • Liver

  • Muscle cells

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How does insulin travel to the liver and muscle cells?

Blood

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What does the liver do in response to insulin?

Takes it and stores it as glycogen

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What hormone is released by the pancreas when blood glucose concentration is lower than normal?

Glucagon

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Name the target organ for glucagon.

Liver

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What does the liver do in response to the glucagon?

Breaks down glycogen back into glucose and puts it back into the blood

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What else is the pancreas referred to as?

Endocrine gland

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What causes type 1 diabetes?

Pancreas cannot make insulin

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What is the main treatment for type 1 diabetes?

Insulin injections

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Where is insulin injected into when someone has type 1 diabetes?

Subcutaneous fat

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What are changes in lifestyle people with type 1 diabetes can make?

  • Eat more complex carbohydrates

  • Exercise regularly

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What causes type 2 diabetes?

Liver and muscle cells aren’t as responsive to insulin

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Can obesity cause type 2 diabetes?

Yes

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What is the equation for BMI?

weight ÷ height

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How does waist-to-hip ratio contribute to type 2 diabetes?

Ratio above 1.0 for men and 0.85 for women linked to increased risk

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What is the equation for waist-to-hip ratio?

waist circumference ÷ hip circumference

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State 2 treatments for type 2 diabetes?

  • Healthy diet

  • Regular exercise

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Do some people with type 2 diabetes inject insulin?

Yes

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State the endocrine for thyroxine.

Thyroid gland

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How does thyroxine concentration affect metabolic rate?

As thyroxine concentration increases, metabolic rate increases

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Which part of the brain monitors the concentration of thyroxine in the blood?

Hypothalamus

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What hormone does hypothalamus release when thyroxine concentration is lower than normal?

TRH

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