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What is the function of a red blood cell?
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GCSE Combined Science
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Why do red blood cells have a biconcave shape?
Increase surface area so they can carry more oxygen
Why don’t red blood cells have a nucleus?
More space to carry oxygen
What is the red pigment in red blood cells called?
What element does haemoglobin contain?
What is the function of haemoglobin?
Oxygen binds to it
What is the haemoglobin called when it is carrying oxygen?
What is the haemoglobin called when it is not carrying oxygen?
What is the function of platelets in the blood?
Name the liquid part of the blood that everything else floats in.
What are the substances carried in the blood?
Which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart?
Is the blood under high or low pressure in the artery?
Why do arteries contain thick layers of muscle?
Why do arteries contain elastic fibres?
To allow recoil
Which blood vessels carry substances to the organs?
Why are capillaries narrow?
They can squeeze between the gaps between cells (every cell gets substances)
Why do capillaries have permeable walls?
So substances can diffuse in and out
How many cells thick is a capillary wall?
Which substances are carried to cells in capillaries?
What substances are removed from cells by capillaries?
Which blood vessels carry blood back to the heart?
Is blood pressure high or low in the veins?
Why do veins have valves?
Do veins have a small or big lumen?
Why do veins have a big lumen?
Helps blood flow
What is a double circulatory system?
Heart pumps blood to the lungs and to the rest of the body
Where does the right side of the heart pump blood to?
Which specific blood vessel carries blood from:
heart → lungs
lungs → heart
heart → organs
Is the aorta a vein or an artery?
organs → heart
Is the vena cava a vein or an artery?
When blood goes:
pulmonary vein → heart
Which part of the heart does it enter after?
Where does blood flow to after the left atrium?
What does blood pass through in between:
left atrium → left ventricle
Atrio-ventricular (AV) valves
Which blood vessel does the blood enter after the left ventricle?
ventricle → artery
What blood vessels does blood enter when it passes through the organs?
Which substances transfer to cells from the blood inside the capillaries?
Which substances leave cells and go into the capillaries?
Urea (from liver)
Which blood vessel does blood enter when:
capillaries → heart
Where does the blood go after the vena cava?
Where does blood flow after the right atrium?
Where does blood flow after the right ventricle?
Which side of the heart has a thicker wall?
Why does the left side of the heart have a thicker wall than the right?
Blood needs to be pumped a further distance, so it is pumped at a higher pressure
What is cardiac output?
Volume of blood pumped out the heart per minute
What is the equation for cardiac output?
heart rate (bpm) × stroke volume
Why do organs need glucose and oxygen?
What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
oxygen + glucose → carbon dioxide + water + energy
What is the balanced, symbol equation for aerobic respiration?
6O₂ + C₆H₁₂O₆ → 6CO₂ +6H₂O + energy
Is energy made or released during respiration?
Where does aerobic respiration take place in the cells?
Which type of cells contract during exercise?
What do muscle cells use in order to contract?
What process releases energy inside muscle cells?
What substances do muscle cells need in order to respire?
What is this piece of equipment called?
What is this piece of equipment used for?
Measuring respiration rate
What gas will the insects be using when respiring in the tube?
What gas will the insects be producing when respiring in the tube?
Which chemical absorbs carbon dioxide so that we can identify how much oxygen the insects are using up during this experiment?
Which direction will the liquid move when the insects use up oxygen?
What is the equation for the rate that the liquid moves during the experiment?
distance ÷ time
How should you ensure the insect’s safety when using a respirometer?
Don’t leave them in the tube too long (or they will run out of oxygen and die)
Which type of exercise results in muscle cells not being supplied with enough oxygen?
What type of respiration do muscle cells do when they don’t have enough oxygen?
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
glucose → lactic acid
What does a build-up of lactic acid cause?
Do plants carry out respiration?
Why do plants have mitochondria?
Are there times when plant cells do not get enough oxygen?
What type of respiration do plants do when they don’t get enough oxygen?
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in plants?
glucose → ethanol + carbon dioxide
Which organ monitors the concentration of glucose in the blood?
What hormone is released by the pancreas when the blood glucose concentration is higher than normal?
Name the target organ/cells for insulin.
How does insulin travel to the liver and muscle cells?
What does the liver do in response to insulin?
Takes it and stores it as glycogen
What hormone is released by the pancreas when blood glucose concentration is lower than normal?
Name the target organ for glucagon.
What does the liver do in response to the glucagon?
Breaks down glycogen back into glucose and puts it back into the blood