AP Government Semester Review

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Social Contract

1 / 115

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
116
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
116 Terms
1
New cards

Social Contract

A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.

New cards
2
New cards

Natural Rights

...

New cards
3
New cards

Life, Liberty, and Property

New cards
4
New cards

consent of the governed

the idea that government derives its authority by the sanction of the people

New cards
5
New cards

direct democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

New cards
6
New cards

Representative democracy

A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.

New cards
7
New cards

articles of confederation

1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)

New cards
8
New cards

Shay's Rebellion

A Series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings. Led to the Constitutional convention

New cards
9
New cards

Elite Theory

A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.

New cards
10
New cards

Pluralist theory

A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies

New cards
11
New cards

Great Compromise

A compromise between the large and small states resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.

New cards
12
New cards

3/5 compromise

settled debate over how slaves would be counted in regards to representation

New cards
13
New cards

Confederate System

A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. The central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states.

New cards
14
New cards

federal system

A government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments

New cards
15
New cards

unitary system

A government that gives all key powers to the national or central government

New cards
16
New cards

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

Court case that said that in establishing a national bank, Congress was legally exercising its enumerated powers not sepcifically mentioned in the Constitution. Established Implied Powers under the "Necessary and Proper Clause"

New cards
17
New cards

Supremacy Clause

Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits. Verified by McCullough V. Maryland (1819)

New cards
18
New cards

conditions of aid

terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds

New cards
19
New cards

Categorical Grants

Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes or "categories," of state and local spending. They come with strings attached, such as nondiscrimination provisions. Compare to block grants.

New cards
20
New cards

Block Grants

Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services

New cards
21
New cards

Federalist # 10

Madisons Warning on Factions. Solution = larger republic

New cards
22
New cards

Cooperative Federalism (Marble Cake)

state and federal government work together to improve the lives of citizens

New cards
23
New cards

Dual Federalism (Layer Cake) 1789-1937

A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.

New cards
24
New cards

Unfunded Mandate

actions imposed by the federal or state government on lower levels of government which are not accompanied by the money needed to fund the action required.

New cards
25
New cards

Checks and Balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power

New cards
26
New cards

Implied Powers

Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions. Justified via Necessary and Proper clause

New cards
27
New cards

Reserved Powers

Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people

New cards
28
New cards

Delegated/Expressed Powers

Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money, declare War or regulate commerce

New cards
29
New cards

Denied Powers

the powers that are denied to the federal government, the state government, or both; also called restricted powers

New cards
30
New cards

Concurrent Powers

Powers held jointly by the national and state governments.

New cards
31
New cards

New Jersey Plan

A constitutional proposal that would have given each state one vote in a new congress

New cards
32
New cards

Virginia Plan

"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.

New cards
33
New cards

Federalists

Favored ratification of the constitution (Madison)

New cards
34
New cards

Anti-Federalists

Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states

New cards
35
New cards

Amending the Constitution

Needs approval of two-thirds of Congress and three-fourths of the states

New cards
36
New cards

Political Socialization

Complex process by which people get their sense of political identity, beliefs, and values. Four sources: Family and community, Events, Group Identity, Politicians and other actors

New cards
37
New cards

sample

A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a survey so as to be representative of the whole population

New cards
38
New cards

sampling error

A calculation that describes what percentage of the people surveyed may not accurately represent the population being studied. Increasing the number of respondents lowers the sampling error.

New cards
39
New cards

ideological polarization

The effect on public opinion when many citizens move away from moderate positions and toward either end of the political spectrum, identifying themselves as either liberals or conservatives.

New cards
40
New cards

mass media

Forms of communication designed to reach large numbers of people.

New cards
41
New cards

gatekeepers

the news media's influence on how citizens make political judgments, through emphasis on particular stories.

New cards
42
New cards

critical realignment

periods when a major, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties

New cards
43
New cards

political action committee (PAC)

A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and directly spends campaign money from voluntary donations

New cards
44
New cards

527 organization

A tax-exempt group formed primarily to influence elections through voter mobilization efforts and issue ads that do not directly endorse or oppose a candidate. Unlike political action committees, they are not subject to contribution limits and spending caps.

New cards
45
New cards

party coalition

The groups who identify with a political party, usually described in demographic terms, such as African American Democrats or evangelical Republicans.

New cards
46
New cards

primary election

A ballot vote in which citizens select a party's nominee for the general election.

New cards
47
New cards

caucus

A meeting of local party members to choose a parties nominee for the general election

New cards
48
New cards

closed primary

A primary election in which a voter is allowed to obtain only a ballot of the party in which they are registered.

New cards
49
New cards

open primary

A primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place.

New cards
50
New cards

plurality

A voting system in which the candidate who receives the most votes within a geographic area wins the election, regardless of whether that candidates wins a majority (more than half) of the votes.

New cards
51
New cards

electoral college

A group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.

New cards
52
New cards

split ticket

Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election

New cards
53
New cards

Gerrymandering

attempting to use the process of redrawing district boundaries to benefit a political party, protect incumbents, or change the proportion of minority voters in a district

New cards
54
New cards

divided government

a situation in which our government has one party in control of one branch and one party in control of another

New cards
55
New cards

factions

groups such as political parties and interest groups

New cards
56
New cards

hyper pluralist theory

a theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened

New cards
57
New cards

participatory democracy

a system of democracy in which all members of a group or community participate collectively in making major decisions

New cards
58
New cards

Rule of Law

No one is above the law

New cards
59
New cards

Popular Sovereignty

Rule by the people

New cards
60
New cards

majority rule

Governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority.

New cards
61
New cards

Limited Government

government structure in which government actions are limited by law

New cards
62
New cards

Legitimacy

Political authority conferred by law or by a state or national constitution

New cards
63
New cards

authority

the right to use power

New cards
64
New cards

Common Good

When the government makes policy decisions to help as many people as possible

New cards
65
New cards

Federalist Papers

A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton (GOAT), John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.

New cards
66
New cards

Separation of Powers

Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law

New cards
67
New cards

Devolution

Transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments.

New cards
68
New cards

10th Amendment

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

New cards
69
New cards

Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause)

Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. Congress can "stretch" their powers.

New cards
70
New cards

Commerce Clause

The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.

New cards
71
New cards

Full Faith and Credit Clause

Section of Article IV of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state.

New cards
72
New cards

Political culture

an overall set of values widely shared within a society

New cards
73
New cards

Liberalism

A belief that government can and should achieve justice and equality of opportunity.

New cards
74
New cards

Conservatism

a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion

New cards
75
New cards

Moderates

persons who do not hold extreme political views

New cards
76
New cards

Demographic Trend: Who Votes Democrat?

Young, Female, African American, More Educated, Low income

New cards
77
New cards

Demographic Trend: Who Votes Republican?

Older, Male, White, Less Educated, High Income

New cards
78
New cards

Demographic Trend: Who is MOST likely to vote?

Old, Wealthy, High Education Level, High Income, White, African American.

New cards
79
New cards

Referendum

a general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision.

New cards
80
New cards

Initiative

A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.

New cards
81
New cards

incumbent

the current officeholder seeking reelection

New cards
82
New cards

incumbency advantage

name recognition, previous electoral experience, past record, more seniority, constituent services, gerrymandered districts.

New cards
83
New cards

political efficacy

The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference

New cards
84
New cards

internal efficacy

the ability to understand and take part in politics

New cards
85
New cards

external efficacy

A belief that the system will respond to a citizen's demands.

New cards
86
New cards

Trust in Government

A positive evaluation of the government in Washington; particularly having faith in the performance of government and in political leaders

New cards
87
New cards

party identification

a citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other

New cards
88
New cards

Alexis de Tocqueville

He wrote a two-volume Democracy in America that contained insights and pinpointed the general equality among people. He wrote that inequalities were less visible in America than France.

New cards
89
New cards

Motor Voter Act of 1993

Tried to increase voter turnout by allowing voter registration at same time as getting or renewing driver's license. Increased the registration rate, but not the voter turnout rate (people still apathetic or not motivated to vote)

New cards
90
New cards

rank and file

These voters are registered as a party member but only participate by voting in primary and general elections. Tend to vote straight-party ticket and follow the leads of local party officials.

New cards
91
New cards

party activists

partisans who contribute time, energy, and effort to support their party and its candidates

New cards
92
New cards

Third parties/Minor parties

represent social and economic interests not voiced by the two major parties

New cards
93
New cards

Reasons third parties struggle for success in the United States

Wasted Vote Mentality, Hard to get on the ballot, Hard to get in the debate, not as easy to raise money.

New cards
94
New cards

Why are third parties good?

Increase participation and raise awareness to issues that the main parties may take.

New cards
95
New cards

Dealignment

A decline in party loyalties that reduces long-term party commitment.

New cards
96
New cards

Frontloading

The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention.

New cards
97
New cards

winner-take-all system

an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins

New cards
98
New cards

hard money

Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.

New cards
99
New cards

soft money

Money that used to go to political parties but now mainly go to SuperPACs in unlimited amounts.

New cards
100
New cards

Public (TAX) money in elections

Can ONLY go to presidential candidates.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1651 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(13)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 25 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard76 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard153 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard77 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard166 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard74 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)