Psych 203

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**Overlapping Topics: DOMAINS -**Language development

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Child Development

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**Overlapping Topics: DOMAINS -**Language development

Is good for children to develop their cognitive abilities to learn and understand words and grammar rules.

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**Overlapping Topics: DOMAINS -**Language development (Examples)

For example the development of language skills is linked to cognitive development it requires thinking abstractly

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Overlapping Topics: DOMAINS - Emotion and cognition

Is when children develop a better understanding and regulating their emotions.

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Overlapping Topics: DOMAINS -**Emotion and cognition (Examples)

For example this cognitive development on emotion helps develop their memory and problem solving. If a child can better regulate their emotions then this will allow them to use their working memory more effectively by helping them problem solve and have decision making.

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**Overlapping Topics: Toddler Cognition and Language -**Piaget 0-2 years olds are in the sensorimotor period

During this stage children do not have a fully developed language system and only communicate through cries, coos, and gestures. Children start to understand more words and can follow simple instructions. They have limited cognitive and language abilities but they do rapidly develop these skills during preschool years.

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Overlapping Topics: Toddler Cognition and Language - 4 months old

Babies start cooing

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Overlapping Topics: Toddler Cognition and Language - 9 months old

babies start to babble

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Overlapping Topics: Toddler Cognition and Language - 12 months old

baby waves “bye bye”,calls “mama,” “Dada,” or other special name, and Understands “no

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Overlapping Topics: Toddler Cognition and Language - 5 months old

they follow words and gestures

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Overlapping Topics: Toddler Cognition and Language - 22 months old

they can point and objects and body parts when asked and can combine 2 words

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - (2-7 year old) - preoperational period (Piaget)

Can use symbolic thought (ex. a child uses a block as a pretend phone they can use an object as a symbol to represent something else). Children begin to use language at this stage but they don’t have adult logic.

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - Operational

Refers to logical manipulation of information (ex. a child understands if you have four blocks and add two more then there’s six blocks)

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - child's logic

Is only based on their own personal experience of the world and not everyone else's.

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - egocentric

2-7 year olds only focusing on their own perceptions. It is difficult for them to understand people’s thoughts, feelings, and perspectives.

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - Egocentrism

Only care about their own perspective and believe everyone thinks they way they do

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - Perceptual salience

Children reason based on what they see and hear

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - Animism

Attribution life to objects (ex. cup is alive, toys need to stay home because their tired (toystory))

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - Middle Childhood

are ages 6-12 years old

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - Early Childhood

are ages 2-6 years old

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - Concrete operational period 6-12 year olds (Piaget)

They can develop logical thought and reason about concrete objects and events. At this stage children’s language skills continue to improve and are able to communicate complex ideas and thoughts

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Overlapping Topics: Preschool Cognition and Language - In Middle Childhood

Kids don’t use Abstract thinking but they are flexible, organized, and memory improves

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Overlapping Topics: COGNITIVE THEORISTS: - Vygotsky

Explained cognitive development as a sociocultural theory which is the importance of culture and social interaction in development. He believed that cognitive skills are obtained through interactions with more knowledgeable peers or adults (known as scaffolding).

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Overlapping Topics: COGNITIVE THEORISTS: - Early Childhood according to Vygotsky:

Suggests that children are influenced by social interaction and they begin to communicate and engage in problem solving.

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Overlapping Topics: COGNITIVE THEORISTS: - Middle childhood  according to Vygotsky

Children become more independent and begin to internalize socially (find their values, beliefs, and have their own thoughts and behaviors about society)

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Overlapping Topics: COGNITIVE THEORISTS: - Information Processing Theorists (IPT)

It is not  the work of one theorist, it is based on ideas and research of multiple cognitive scientists that studies how individuals perceive, analyze, manipulate, use, and remember information.

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Overlapping Topics: COGNITIVE THEORISTS: - Early Childhood according to IPT

Their attention is more planful, they scan more thoroughly, they remember better and can follow simple memory tasks, their memory strategies are more effective when recall leads to a desired goal

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Overlapping Topics: COGNITIVE THEORISTS: - Middle Childhood  according to IPT

Their attention is relevant and more planful in decisions about task completion, working memory expands, IP capacites, executive functions, improved understanding of self and other IP, metacognition, metamemory, meta-language improvements

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: What age do Trust vs. Mistrust occurs? (Erikson’s 4 stages)

0-1 yrs

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: In Trust vs. Mistrust (Erikson’s 4 stages)

  1. Infants must rely on caregivers to meet their needs, which can create a sense of trust or mistrust.

  2. Positive resolution leads to a sense of trust in the world, while negative resolution leads to a lack of trust.

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: What is bad about having too much trust, (Erikson’s 4 stages)

Complete trust is not ideal as it can lead to danger from strangers.

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: Autonomy vs, Shame and Doubt - Age (Erikson’s 4 stages)- Age?

Toddler (1-3 yrs)

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: Toddler __Autonomy vs, Shame and Doubt - (__Erikson’s 4 stages) - Autonomy vs, Shame and Doubt

  1. Toddlers develop independence and autonomy as they assert their will and control their bodies.

  2. Caregivers' control or criticism can lead to shame and doubt.

  3. Positive resolution leads to self-control and confidence, while negative resolution leads to inadequacy and self-doubt.

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: Toddler __Autonomy vs, Shame and Doubt - (__Erikson’s 4 stages): What is bad about having too much autonomy?

Complete autonomy is not ideal as it can lead to dangerous situations.

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: Toddler __Autonomy vs, Shame and Doubt - (__Erikson’s 4 stages): What is an Example of Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt:

If the parents allow the child to try and feed themselves, even if they make a mess and struggle at first, they are encouraging autonomy. However, if the parents don't allow the child to try and feed themselves, or criticize them for making a mess, the child may develop feelings of shame and doubt about their ability to do things on their own.

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: __(__Erikson’s 4 stages): What Erikston stage started in Early Childhood (3-6 yrs)

Initiative vs. Guilt

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: __(__Erikson’s 4 stages): What is Initiative vs. Guilt?

  1. Exuberant, bold play vs. overly strict superego

  2. Children develop initiative as they explore and take risks, which can result in feelings of guilt if they are criticized or punished.

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: __(__Erikson’s 4 stages):

Positive resolution leads to a sense of purpose and________, while negative resolution leads to ____and the fear of punishment.

initiative, guilt

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: __(__Erikson’s 4 stages): What Erikston stage started in Middle Childhood (6-12 yrs)

Industry vs. Inferiority

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: __(__Erikson’s 4 stages): Industry vs. Inferiority

  1. Children develop a sense of competence and industry as they acquire new skills and knowledge.

  2. Positive resolution leads to a sense of accomplishment and industry, while negative resolution leads to a sense of inferiority and inadequacy.

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Overlapping Topics: PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES: __(__Erikson’s 4 stages): Excessive focus on ______can lead to neglect of other important aspects of life.

industry

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MORTALITY: Top Causes of Death- 1-4 yrs

  1. Accident (unintentional injuries)

  2. Congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities

  3. Assault (homicide)

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MORTALITY: Top Causes of Death-5-9 yrs

  1. Accident (unintentional injuries)

  2. Cancer

  3. Assault (homicide)

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MORTALITY: Top Causes of Death- 10-14 yrs

  1. Accidents (unintentional injuries)

  2. Intentional self -harm (suicide)

  3. Cancer

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PROMOTING POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Parents, teachers, and peers can encourage children to engage in physical activity by

Playing outside, participating in sports, or taking dance class. This can help promote positive motor development

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PROMOTING POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Parents, teachers, and peers can engage in conversations with children,

Asking them questions and listening to their answers. This can help promote cognitive development and language skills

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PROMOTING POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Parents, teachers, and peers can encourage positive social interactions, such as

sharing, taking turns, and playing cooperatively. This can help promote positive social and emotional development

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PROMOTING POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Parents, teachers, and peers can model and encourage empathy and compassion towards others.

This can help promote moral development and a sense of social responsibility.

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PROMOTING POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Parents, teachers, and peers can encourage children to explore

their interests and express themselves in creative ways. This can help promote positive self-identity and self-esteem

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Attachment:

Is a by directional emotional bond based on a history of interaction/being bidirectional an emotional bond based on history and interactions

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ATTACHMENT: Caregivers behaviors

When a child is having negative emotions and a person is there for them then they might get attached. Consistent and predictable caregiving helps infants develop a sense of trust and security in their relationship, Caregivers who provide loving and affectionate interactions with their infant help to foster a sense of emotional security.

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ATTACHMENT: When the attachment figure returns

the child smile that means there is a secure attachment they might recognize and say their name

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ATTACHMENT: Infants with secure attachments

are more likely to be curious and motivated to explore their environment, which can promote learning and cognitive development.

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FATHER REGISTRY: The Responsible Father Registry

Is a database that keeps track of men who may be the biological fathers of a child born out of wedlock. Its purpose is to make sure these men are notified if their child is going to be put up for adoption, so they have the chance to object if they want to.

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FATHER REGISTRY: Department of Health and Human Services or the Department of Social Services.

The agency that hosts this is a state agency responsible for child welfare

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Physical Development, Self-Help and Motor Skills for Kindergarten

  1. Moves with control and balance while walking, running, jumping and climbing

  2. Independently performs self-help tasks such as toileting hand washing, tooth brushing and dressing

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SCHOOL READINESS: Approaches to Learning and Inquiry for Kindergarten

  1. Shows curiosity through questioning

  2. Shows creativity and imagination through pretend play

  3. Use sense and observations to learn about the world around them

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SCHOOL READINESS: Mathematical Thinking  for Kindergarten

  1. Describes and compares objects by size (big and small), length (long and short) and weight (light and heavy)

  2. Recognizes and repeats simple repeating patterns, such as triangle, square triangle square

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SCHOOL READINESS: Language and Literacy Development  for Kindergarten

  1. Uses words to seek help, answer questions and solve problem

  2. Recognizes that letters represent spoken sounds

  3. Writes name independently or using an example

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SCHOOL READINESS: Emotional and Social Development  for Kindergarten

  1. Shows self-control

  2. Makes friends

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COMPARE PERIODS: At 2-6 year old kids(pre-logical)

Are busy learning language, gaining a sense of self and greater independence, and beginning to understand the working of the physical world

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COMPARE PERIODS: At 3-4 years old

They can take make pictures of people and ascends stairs,

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COMPARE PERIODS: At age 4-5 years (pre-logical) are busy learning language, gaining a sense of self and greater independence, and beginning told

they can skip and cut with scissors

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COMPARE PERIODS: at age 5-6 years old (pre-logica)

They can tie shoes, throw and catch

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COMPARE PERIODS: In middle school(logical)

  1. they are less egocentric

  2. They understand the perspectives of others

  3. develop more complex skills in reading, writing,math,science, and social skills

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EC Phys & Motor Dev: Early Childhood period motor development

  1. Slower physical growth

  2. New gross and fine motor skills

  3. When kids first draw pictures of people 3-4 years old

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EC Phys & Motor Dev: In Early Childhood or Middle Childhood do children grow slow and height and weight increases

kids can play harder in playing, playing with  puzzles, and writing or drawing  simple shapes and letters, become independent, they can zip sippers and tie shoelaces?

Early childhood

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EC Phys & Motor Dev: Average 6-year old child is

45 pounds and is 45 inches tall

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EC Phys & Motor Dev: Early childhood children grow

2-3 inches in height per year and gain around 4-5 pounds in weight per year

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EC Phys & Motor Dev: Middle Childhood children are

2-5 inches and 5-8 pounds added each year

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EC Phys & Motor Dev: Do girls slightly have more body fat than boys?

Yes,girls have more than boys

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EC Phys & Motor Dev: Do girls have muscle in middle childhood?

No, boys do

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EC Phys & Motor Dev: Improvement of muscle tone and strength:

as children grow, their muscles become stronger and more toned, which helps them maintain balance and coordination

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EC Phys & Motor Dev: Cephalocaudal development

is relevant to these physical changes because it refers to the principle that development tends to proceed from the head downward meaning that the head and neck muscles become stronger and more coordinated first, followed by the shoulders and arms, and finally the legs and feet. As a result, young children typically have better control over their upper body movements before they are able to walk and run with stability.

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Cephalocaudal development. This principle helps explain why

young children may “top-heavy” and have difficulty with balance and coordination early on their development

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Fine motor development: F

Fine motor skills refer to the ability to control small movements of the hands and fingers. These skills are crucial for tasks such as holding a pencil or crayon, forming letters and shapes, and coloring within lines

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Cognitive development:

refers to the growth of mental processes such as attention, memory, problem solving, and language. They may also be able to plan and organize their thoughts more effectively, leading to more coherent and detailed writing

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Social-emotional development:

refers to the growth of skills related to social interactions and emotional regulation. They may also develop a stronger sense of identity and begin experiment with different styles and forms of writing and drawing

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Development in multiple domains is necessary for children to achieve proficiency in

drawing and writing.

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Biological differences in physical develop this is due to genetic and other biological factors are

Genetic factors such as height, body shape

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Biological differences in physical development: Nutrition

A lack of essential  nutrients can lead to stunted growth, delayed motor development, and other health concern

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Demographic differences in physical development associated with age, gender, and socioeconomic status are

  1. Age: Physical development varies by age and change in height, weight, and body

  2. Gender: females tend to have puberty earlier than males

  3. Socioeconomic status: Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds may experience nutritional deficiencies or exposure to environmental toxins that can hinder their physical development

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: Sally-Anne helps us understand that in early childhood children are egocentric and have pre-logical thinking because

at around 3 years old children don’t understand that others think the way they do. At 4 years old they gradually continue to develop theory of mind.

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: Some people with Autism

struggle with theory of mind and are not able to think about others however some people with autism have been able to have theory of mind

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: Preschoolers (theory of mind)

  1. don’t realize anything is going on unless they see a person’s outside signs

  2. We as people use sounds or expressions when talking to preschoolers

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: Three-year-olds have difficulty distinguishing between

  1. what they once thought was true and what they now know to be true.

  2. They feel confident that what they know now is what they have always known

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: in Early Childhood in Theory of Mind

They have difficulty hiding how they really feel (e.g., saying thank you for a gift they do not really like).

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: Not until middle childhood do (theory of mind)

they understand that people may hide how they really feel.

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: Middle Childhood Improve

their own mental life, Thinking and problem solving advances

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: Middle Childhood understand

the mind is constantly working on new information it is very active

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 2-3 years old

  1. they understand what people are coming from

  2. rub the back that provide comfort

  3. Make believe play, early perspective taking, recognition memory, difference between inner mental and outer physical events

  4. Understand memories are different than what is going on right in front of them

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 3-5 years old

Cause and effect, Hierarchical classification, Egocentric speech/private speech,Scripts, Understand people can have false beliefs,Cardinality principle (1-1 correspondent) all occur during the time period

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 3-5 years old  - Cause and effect

Helps kids understand that if you throw a ball the ball will move through the air and possible land somewhere else

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 3-5 years old  - Hierarchical classification

  1. Can group objects like animals or vehicles

  2. However might have difficult understanding a robin is a type of bird which is a type of animal

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 3-5 years old  - Egocentric speech/private speech

  1. talk aloud to themselves during activities usually in problem-solving or decision making

  2. normal and help them develop

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 3-5 years old  - Scripts

  1. Are like mental “maps”/ “templates” like a kid has a bedtime script that includes taking a bath, brushing teeth, putting on pajamas and reading a story

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 3-5 years old  -Scripts are important because

they are able to understand and navigate the world around them and this can help them anticipate what will happen next, plan their actions, and adapt to new situations and contexts

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 3-5 years old  -Cardinality principle (1-1 correspondent)

When kids can count

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 3-5 years old  -An example of cardinality principle:

A kids has four apple he counts “one apple” then “two apple” then “three apples” the child was able to understand 1-1 correspondent because they he didn’t count the object multiple times or skip over others if he did this would be an inaccurate understanding of the cardinality of the set.

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 5-7 years old

appearance vs reality, recall, scripted memory improve, letter and sounds systematically linked  all occur during the time period

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EC Cognitive and Language Dev: In Children 5-7 years old - Appearance vs reality

They recognize that things are not always what they seem

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