bio man

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Calvin Cycle

1 / 670

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
671
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
671 Terms
1
New cards

Calvin Cycle

The ___________ is a cyclic set of endergonic reactions that occur in the colourless stroma, that synthesize carbohydrates from CO2

New cards
2
New cards

Stroma

The Calvin Cycle is a cyclic set of endergonic reactions that occur in the colourless _______, that synthesize carbohydrates from CO2

New cards
3
New cards

Carbon fixation

What term is used to describe the joining of a CO2 to P-C5-P (ribulose-1,5-biphosphate)?

New cards
4
New cards

Rubisco

Carbon fixation is a carboxylation reaction catalyzed by ___________

New cards
5
New cards

Rubisco

Supposedly the planet's most abundant protein

New cards
6
New cards

P-C6-P

Carbon fixation produces a _____ molecule

New cards
7
New cards

C3-P

The resulting P-C6-P molecule from carbon fixation splits into two ____ molecules

New cards
8
New cards

Reduction

In ___________ (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

New cards
9
New cards
  1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (requiring 1ATP → 1ADP)

New cards
10
New cards
  1. Redox (requiring 1 NADPH → 1 NADP+)

New cards
11
New cards

Substrate-level phosphorylation

In reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

New cards
12
New cards
  1. _______________________ (requiring 1ATP → 1ADP)

New cards
13
New cards
  1. Redox (requiring 1 NADPH → 1 NADP+)

New cards
14
New cards

ATP, ADP

In reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

New cards
15
New cards
  1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (requiring 1____ → 1____)

New cards
16
New cards
  1. Redox (requiring 1 NADPH → 1 NADP+)

New cards
17
New cards

Redox

In reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

New cards
18
New cards
  1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (requiring 1ATP → 1ADP)

New cards
19
New cards
  1. ___________ (requiring 1 NADPH → 1 NADP+)

New cards
20
New cards

NADPH, NADP+

In reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

New cards
21
New cards
  1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (requiring 1ATP → 1ADP)

New cards
22
New cards
  1. Redox (requiring 1________ → 1_______)

New cards
23
New cards

G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate)

The result of reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), is 1C3-P → 1______

New cards
24
New cards

G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate)

What is the "end-game" of photosynthesis?

New cards
25
New cards

Regeneration

In ________________ (phase 3 of the Calvin Cycle), 5 G3P are recycled into 3 P-C5-P, requiring 3ATP → 3ADP

New cards
26
New cards

ATP, ADP

In regeneration (phase 3 of the Calvin Cycle), 5 G3P are recycled into 3 P-C5-P, requiring 3____ → 3____

New cards
27
New cards

CO2, ATP, NADPH

What are the 3 requirements for the Calvin Cycle?

New cards
28
New cards

Is not

Light (is/is not) a requirement for the Calvin Cycle

New cards
29
New cards

2

How many different photosystems are on the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts?

New cards
30
New cards

PSI, PSII

The two different photosystems on the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts are ____ and _____

New cards
31
New cards

2

How many ETCs are on the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts?

New cards
32
New cards

ETC (electron transfer chain)

A(n) ____ links the downstream end of PSII to the upstream end of PSI

New cards
33
New cards

Thylakoid membrane

An ETC links the downstream end of PSI to the outer surface of the _________________

New cards
34
New cards

PSI

An ETC links the downstream end of (PSI/PSII) to the outer surface of the thylakoid membrane

New cards
35
New cards

False

True or false? Electrons flow from PSI to PSII

New cards
36
New cards

True

True or false? Electrons flow from PSII to PSI

New cards
37
New cards

Z-scheme

The arrangement of the 2 photosystems and the 2 ETCs is called a ___________

New cards
38
New cards

Colourless

ETC molecules are ____________

New cards
39
New cards

NADP+

The ETC from PSI is relatively short, so the electrons are still somewhat high-energy when they reach the end, and as such can be passed to ________

New cards
40
New cards

Proton-motive

Electron flow down the ETC from PSII to PSI creates __________ force

New cards
41
New cards

1

For each pair of electrons that passes along the ETC, enough H+ ions are pumped across the thylakoid membrane to make how many ATP?

New cards
42
New cards

PSII

PSI makes up its electron shortfall by receiving electrons from ____

New cards
43
New cards

Splitting H2O

PSII makes up its electron shortfall by ______________

New cards
44
New cards

Photons

Energy from ________ is used to split water, to make up for the elctron shortfall of PSII

New cards
45
New cards

2

In order to produce 1 O2 molecule, how many water molecules would have to be split?

New cards
46
New cards

2

How many times is 1 electron excited by a photon as it passes through the Z scheme?

New cards
47
New cards

2

How many NADP+s will be needed to receive the electrons released when 2 water molecules are split?

New cards
48
New cards

8

What is the minimum number of photons needed to move the electrons from 2 water molecules all the way through the Z scheme to NADP+ in the stroma?

New cards
49
New cards

Chemiosmosis

The proton-motive force resulting from the ETC from PSII to PSI is used to synthesize ATP by what process?

New cards
50
New cards

ATP synthase

The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis synthesize ATP by diffusing H+ ions through __________________

New cards
51
New cards

3, 3, 3, 1, 3, 3

Overall, the net result of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is:

New cards
52
New cards

2H2O + __NADP+ + __ADP + __Pi → __O2 + __NADPH + __ATP

New cards
53
New cards

Photophosphorylation

The making of ATP in chloroplasts by chemiosmosis in association with all the light reactions (photosystems and ETCs) is called ____________________

New cards
54
New cards

Autotroph(s)

Organisms that synthesize all the organic molecules they need from simple inorganic molecules and an outside energy source

New cards
55
New cards

2

How many types of autotrophs are there?

New cards
56
New cards

Chemoautotroph(s)

Organisms which obtain energy from the oxidation of electron donor molecules, and synthesize organic compounds from CO2

New cards
57
New cards

Photoautotroph(s)

Autotrophs which use light as their energy source

New cards
58
New cards

Heterotroph(s)

Organisms which CANNOT make all the organic molecules they need from simple inorganic molecules

New cards
59
New cards

Fatty acids, amino acids, immune

Other functions of chloroplasts are the synthesis of ___________ and ____________, and involvement in the ___________ response

New cards
60
New cards

Reduced

In photosynthesis, the carbon in CO2 is (oxidized/reduced)

New cards
61
New cards

Oxidized

In photosynthesis, the oxygen in H2O is (oxidized/reduced)

New cards
62
New cards

Endergonic

Photosynthesis is (endergonic/exergonic)

New cards
63
New cards

+685 (kcal/mol)

∆G for photosynthesis

New cards
64
New cards

Leaves

In plants, chloroplasts are mostly located in the _________ (as well as the stems)

New cards
65
New cards

Intermembrane space

Chloroplasts (and all plastids) have two smooth outer membranes, separated by the ____________________

New cards
66
New cards

Stroma

In chloroplasts, the second membrane contains a fluid called _______

New cards
67
New cards

Thylakoid(s)

In chloroplasts, the stroma contains fluid-filled sacs called __________

New cards
68
New cards

Thylakoid

In chloroplasts, the third set of membranes is the __________ membranes

New cards
69
New cards

(Thylakoid) lumen

Inside the thylakoids is what?

New cards
70
New cards

Grana

Stacks of thylakoids are called what?

New cards
71
New cards

Stromal lamellae

Different grana can be connected, by __________________

New cards
72
New cards

Light reactions, Calvin Cycle

Two main reaction categories in photosynthesis

New cards
73
New cards

Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid( pigment)s

Light-harvesting pigments include what 3 types of molecules?

New cards
74
New cards

Antenna

When a photon of appropriate wavelength strikes a pigment molecule in the ____________, it excites an electron of one of the atoms of that molecule

New cards
75
New cards

Electron

When a photon of appropriate wavelength strikes a pigment molecule in the antenna, it excites an ____________ of one of the atoms of that molecule

New cards
76
New cards

Ground state

The excited electron will return almost immediately to its ______________, releasing energy, as a less energetic photon or heat (in isolated pigments), or as resonance energy transfer (in photosynthesis)

New cards
77
New cards

More

The shorter the wavelength of a photon, the (less/more) energy it has

New cards
78
New cards

Blue, red

Chlorophylls absorb light best in the _____ and _____ coloured ranges

New cards
79
New cards

Broadens

Having more than one type of pigment in the antenna (broadens/narrows) the spectrum of absorbable light

New cards
80
New cards

Action spectrum (for photosynthesis)

This graph that looks at all the pigments combined; it shows the relative rate of photosynthesis at different wavelengths (measured by O2 production)

New cards
81
New cards

Some (evidenced by some O2 production)

(No/some) green light is used in photosynthesis

New cards
82
New cards

Photosystem(s)

Light harvesting occurs in ______________ located on the thylakoid membranes

New cards
83
New cards

Antenna

A photosystem consists of a(n) ___________, containing 250-400 pigment molecules, surrounding a reaction centre

New cards
84
New cards

Reaction centre

The _____________ is surrounded by antenna; it contains proteins, a specialized chlorophyll a, and the primary electron acceptor

New cards
85
New cards

Resonance energy transfer

The released energy of the excited electron is passed from pigment to pigment in what process?

New cards
86
New cards

Reaction centre chlorophyll a

Eventually, the energy of the excited electron passes to the ________________________ molecule

New cards
87
New cards

Primary electron acceptor

The reaction centre chlorophyll a transfers its excited electron to a ______________ molecule (in a redox reaction)

New cards
88
New cards

Resonance energy transfer

The energy transfer from pigments to the reaction centre chlorophyll a is a (redox/resonance energy transfer) reaction

New cards
89
New cards

Redox

The energy transfer from reaction centre chlorophyll a to primary electron acceptor is a (redox/resonance energy transfer) reaction

New cards
90
New cards

Chemical (bond)

When the electron is transferred to the primary electron acceptor, light energy is finally converted into ___________ energy

New cards
91
New cards

ETC (electron transfer chain)

The excited electron is then immediately transferred down a(n) _____

New cards
92
New cards

Electron shortfall

Due to _____________ in reaction centre, there must be new electrons brought in to replace the high energy electrons lost to the ETC

New cards
93
New cards

Proton-motive

The pumping of H+ from the matrix into the intermembrane space creates a ______________ force, which can be used to make ATP

New cards
94
New cards

ATP

The pumping of H+ from the matrix into the intermembrane space creates a proton-motive force, which can be used to make ____

New cards
95
New cards

3

For each pair of electrons travelling down the ETC from NADH, enough hydrogens are pumped across the inner membrane to produce __ ATP

New cards
96
New cards

2

For each pair of electrons travelling down the ETC from FADH2, enough hydrogens are pumped across the inner membrane to produce __ ATP

New cards
97
New cards

H2O

At the end of the ETC, O2 is reduced to form ____

New cards
98
New cards

Exogenous

In order for ETCs to function, a(n) ___________ final electron acceptor (eg O2) must be present

New cards
99
New cards

Concentration, voltage

The proton-motive force established by the pumping of H+ is both a ________________ and __________ gradient

New cards
100
New cards

ATP synthase

H+ ions diffuse across the inner membrane through channels located within the bases of the many transmembrane __________________ enzymes located in the membrane

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1046 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard121 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)