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Calvin Cycle

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Biology

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1

Calvin Cycle

The ___________ is a cyclic set of endergonic reactions that occur in the colourless stroma, that synthesize carbohydrates from CO2

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Stroma

The Calvin Cycle is a cyclic set of endergonic reactions that occur in the colourless _______, that synthesize carbohydrates from CO2

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Carbon fixation

What term is used to describe the joining of a CO2 to P-C5-P (ribulose-1,5-biphosphate)?

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Rubisco

Carbon fixation is a carboxylation reaction catalyzed by ___________

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Rubisco

Supposedly the planet's most abundant protein

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P-C6-P

Carbon fixation produces a _____ molecule

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C3-P

The resulting P-C6-P molecule from carbon fixation splits into two ____ molecules

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Reduction

In ___________ (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

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  1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (requiring 1ATP → 1ADP)

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  1. Redox (requiring 1 NADPH → 1 NADP+)

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Substrate-level phosphorylation

In reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

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  1. _______________________ (requiring 1ATP → 1ADP)

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  1. Redox (requiring 1 NADPH → 1 NADP+)

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ATP, ADP

In reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

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  1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (requiring 1____ → 1____)

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  1. Redox (requiring 1 NADPH → 1 NADP+)

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Redox

In reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

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  1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (requiring 1ATP → 1ADP)

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  1. ___________ (requiring 1 NADPH → 1 NADP+)

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NADPH, NADP+

In reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), each C3-P molecule goes through 2 reactions:

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21
  1. Substrate-level phosphorylation (requiring 1ATP → 1ADP)

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  1. Redox (requiring 1________ → 1_______)

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G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate)

The result of reduction (phase 2 of the Calvin Cycle), is 1C3-P → 1______

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G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate)

What is the "end-game" of photosynthesis?

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Regeneration

In ________________ (phase 3 of the Calvin Cycle), 5 G3P are recycled into 3 P-C5-P, requiring 3ATP → 3ADP

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ATP, ADP

In regeneration (phase 3 of the Calvin Cycle), 5 G3P are recycled into 3 P-C5-P, requiring 3____ → 3____

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CO2, ATP, NADPH

What are the 3 requirements for the Calvin Cycle?

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Is not

Light (is/is not) a requirement for the Calvin Cycle

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29

2

How many different photosystems are on the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts?

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PSI, PSII

The two different photosystems on the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts are ____ and _____

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2

How many ETCs are on the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts?

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ETC (electron transfer chain)

A(n) ____ links the downstream end of PSII to the upstream end of PSI

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Thylakoid membrane

An ETC links the downstream end of PSI to the outer surface of the _________________

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PSI

An ETC links the downstream end of (PSI/PSII) to the outer surface of the thylakoid membrane

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False

True or false? Electrons flow from PSI to PSII

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True

True or false? Electrons flow from PSII to PSI

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Z-scheme

The arrangement of the 2 photosystems and the 2 ETCs is called a ___________

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Colourless

ETC molecules are ____________

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39

NADP+

The ETC from PSI is relatively short, so the electrons are still somewhat high-energy when they reach the end, and as such can be passed to ________

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Proton-motive

Electron flow down the ETC from PSII to PSI creates __________ force

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1

For each pair of electrons that passes along the ETC, enough H+ ions are pumped across the thylakoid membrane to make how many ATP?

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PSII

PSI makes up its electron shortfall by receiving electrons from ____

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Splitting H2O

PSII makes up its electron shortfall by ______________

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Photons

Energy from ________ is used to split water, to make up for the elctron shortfall of PSII

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2

In order to produce 1 O2 molecule, how many water molecules would have to be split?

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2

How many times is 1 electron excited by a photon as it passes through the Z scheme?

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2

How many NADP+s will be needed to receive the electrons released when 2 water molecules are split?

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48

8

What is the minimum number of photons needed to move the electrons from 2 water molecules all the way through the Z scheme to NADP+ in the stroma?

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49

Chemiosmosis

The proton-motive force resulting from the ETC from PSII to PSI is used to synthesize ATP by what process?

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50

ATP synthase

The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis synthesize ATP by diffusing H+ ions through __________________

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3, 3, 3, 1, 3, 3

Overall, the net result of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis is:

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2H2O + __NADP+ + __ADP + __Pi → __O2 + __NADPH + __ATP

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Photophosphorylation

The making of ATP in chloroplasts by chemiosmosis in association with all the light reactions (photosystems and ETCs) is called ____________________

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Autotroph(s)

Organisms that synthesize all the organic molecules they need from simple inorganic molecules and an outside energy source

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2

How many types of autotrophs are there?

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Chemoautotroph(s)

Organisms which obtain energy from the oxidation of electron donor molecules, and synthesize organic compounds from CO2

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Photoautotroph(s)

Autotrophs which use light as their energy source

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Heterotroph(s)

Organisms which CANNOT make all the organic molecules they need from simple inorganic molecules

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59

Fatty acids, amino acids, immune

Other functions of chloroplasts are the synthesis of ___________ and ____________, and involvement in the ___________ response

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Reduced

In photosynthesis, the carbon in CO2 is (oxidized/reduced)

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Oxidized

In photosynthesis, the oxygen in H2O is (oxidized/reduced)

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Endergonic

Photosynthesis is (endergonic/exergonic)

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+685 (kcal/mol)

∆G for photosynthesis

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Leaves

In plants, chloroplasts are mostly located in the _________ (as well as the stems)

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Intermembrane space

Chloroplasts (and all plastids) have two smooth outer membranes, separated by the ____________________

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Stroma

In chloroplasts, the second membrane contains a fluid called _______

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Thylakoid(s)

In chloroplasts, the stroma contains fluid-filled sacs called __________

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Thylakoid

In chloroplasts, the third set of membranes is the __________ membranes

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(Thylakoid) lumen

Inside the thylakoids is what?

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70

Grana

Stacks of thylakoids are called what?

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Stromal lamellae

Different grana can be connected, by __________________

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Light reactions, Calvin Cycle

Two main reaction categories in photosynthesis

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73

Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid( pigment)s

Light-harvesting pigments include what 3 types of molecules?

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Antenna

When a photon of appropriate wavelength strikes a pigment molecule in the ____________, it excites an electron of one of the atoms of that molecule

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Electron

When a photon of appropriate wavelength strikes a pigment molecule in the antenna, it excites an ____________ of one of the atoms of that molecule

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Ground state

The excited electron will return almost immediately to its ______________, releasing energy, as a less energetic photon or heat (in isolated pigments), or as resonance energy transfer (in photosynthesis)

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More

The shorter the wavelength of a photon, the (less/more) energy it has

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Blue, red

Chlorophylls absorb light best in the _____ and _____ coloured ranges

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Broadens

Having more than one type of pigment in the antenna (broadens/narrows) the spectrum of absorbable light

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Action spectrum (for photosynthesis)

This graph that looks at all the pigments combined; it shows the relative rate of photosynthesis at different wavelengths (measured by O2 production)

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Some (evidenced by some O2 production)

(No/some) green light is used in photosynthesis

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Photosystem(s)

Light harvesting occurs in ______________ located on the thylakoid membranes

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Antenna

A photosystem consists of a(n) ___________, containing 250-400 pigment molecules, surrounding a reaction centre

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Reaction centre

The _____________ is surrounded by antenna; it contains proteins, a specialized chlorophyll a, and the primary electron acceptor

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Resonance energy transfer

The released energy of the excited electron is passed from pigment to pigment in what process?

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86

Reaction centre chlorophyll a

Eventually, the energy of the excited electron passes to the ________________________ molecule

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Primary electron acceptor

The reaction centre chlorophyll a transfers its excited electron to a ______________ molecule (in a redox reaction)

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Resonance energy transfer

The energy transfer from pigments to the reaction centre chlorophyll a is a (redox/resonance energy transfer) reaction

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Redox

The energy transfer from reaction centre chlorophyll a to primary electron acceptor is a (redox/resonance energy transfer) reaction

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Chemical (bond)

When the electron is transferred to the primary electron acceptor, light energy is finally converted into ___________ energy

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ETC (electron transfer chain)

The excited electron is then immediately transferred down a(n) _____

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Electron shortfall

Due to _____________ in reaction centre, there must be new electrons brought in to replace the high energy electrons lost to the ETC

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Proton-motive

The pumping of H+ from the matrix into the intermembrane space creates a ______________ force, which can be used to make ATP

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ATP

The pumping of H+ from the matrix into the intermembrane space creates a proton-motive force, which can be used to make ____

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3

For each pair of electrons travelling down the ETC from NADH, enough hydrogens are pumped across the inner membrane to produce __ ATP

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2

For each pair of electrons travelling down the ETC from FADH2, enough hydrogens are pumped across the inner membrane to produce __ ATP

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97

H2O

At the end of the ETC, O2 is reduced to form ____

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Exogenous

In order for ETCs to function, a(n) ___________ final electron acceptor (eg O2) must be present

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Concentration, voltage

The proton-motive force established by the pumping of H+ is both a ________________ and __________ gradient

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ATP synthase

H+ ions diffuse across the inner membrane through channels located within the bases of the many transmembrane __________________ enzymes located in the membrane

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