Perception

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1

heuristics are...

rules-of-thumb that can be applied to guide decision-making based on a more limited subset of the available information

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2

The brain continuously makes predictions about the world and tests these against ______________

sensory evidence

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3

the brain has evolved to __________

reconstruct reality in a way that is useful to us

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4

one way to learn how a complex system is organised is...

by studying situations where it makes mistakes

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5

mental life gets more complex with more ______

sensory stimuli

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6

Define psychophysics

scientific method for investigation of relationships between physical stimuli and psychological experience

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7

The "absolute threshold" is...

the smallest amount of stimulation needed for a person to detect that stimulus 50% of the time

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8

Example of absolute sensory threshold: Vision

candle flame 30 miles away on a dark, clear night

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9

Example of absolute sensory threshold: Hearing

a clock's tick 20 feet away when all is quiet

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Example of absolute sensory threshold: Touch

a fly's wing falling on the cheek from 1 cm away

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Example of absolute sensory threshold: Smell

a single drop of perfume diffused through an area equivalent to the volume of six rooms

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12

Define difference threshold.

the minimum difference in stimulus intensity necessary to tell two stimuli apart

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13

What is another name for the difference threshold?

just noticeable difference (JND)

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14

What is the difference threshold or JND dependent on?

the magnitude of the stimuli

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15

Weber-Fechner law:

CHANGE in INTENSITY over INTENSITY equals WEBER FRACTION (K)

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16

Weber-Fechner law states that...

JND is a constant proportion of standard stimulus intensity

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17

Weber fraction - light intensity

0.079

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18

Weber fraction - sound intensity

0.048

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19

Weber fraction - salt taste

0.083

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20

Psychophysics marked the beginning of ___________

experimental psychology

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21

Define signal detection theory.

a method of differentiating a person's ability to discriminate the presence and absence of a stimulus (or different stimulus intensities) from the criterion the person uses to make responses to those stimuli.

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22

Hits are ______

identifying correct stimulus

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23

A false alarm is when _______

subject identifies stimulus but there is no stimulus there

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24

Light is ______

the visual part of the electromagnetic spectrum

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25

Define visual acuity.

The ability to see fine detail

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26

Visible light is ________

The portion of electromagnetic spectrum seen

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27

Colour _______ exist in the outside world

does

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28

Colour _________ exist in the outside world

doesn't

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29

The lens of an eye expands and contracts to ____________

control how light falls on the retina

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30

The optic nerve has ______

photoreceptors

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31

There are no photoreceptors in the _________

blind spot

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32

retinal image is ________ in passing through the lens

inverted

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33

topographic meaning

map like -> reflects real world spatial relationships

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34

visual signals relay to primary visual cortex via ___________

lateral geniculate nucleus

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35

Receptive field

Region of sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron

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36

The visual system represents the world __________

Topographically

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37

The basic elements within the visual world (e.g. edges, colour, movement) are delivered by ________

bottom-up hierarchical processes

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38

feature detectors are _________

the building blocks of perception

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39

Our feature detectors are wired to _______

detect changes

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40

the brain can solve complex tasks by _________

breaking them down into many, much simpler sub-tasks

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41

High-level phenomena can be understood in terms of _____

simple low-level mechanisms

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42

motions perception is _______

relative

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43

space constancy is __________

when we factor out self-generated movement, to perceive only movement arising in the world

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44

motion is a powerful cue for __________

alerting, orienting and for form perception

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45

perceptual constancies mean we can see real, unchanging properties in the world despite _____________

LARGE changes in stimulation

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46

What does colour vision do for us?

  1. helps us classify and identify objects

  2. is important signalling mechanism in nature

  3. facilitates perceptual organisation of scene into distinct objects

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47

The colour of an object or substance is determined by __________________

the wavelengths of light that it reflects (or that pass through it)

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48

There are two basic classes of ___________

Photoreceptor

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49

What are the two basic classes of photoreceptor?

rods and cones

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50

Modalities

sensory brain regions that process different components of the perceptual world

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51

sensation

simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ

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52

perception

the organisation, identification and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation

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transduction

what takes place when many senses in the body convert physical signals from the body into neural signals sent to the central nervous system.

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54

D prime (D')

A statistic that gives a relatively pure measure of the observer's sensitivity or ability to detect signals

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Sensory adaptation

sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions

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retina

light-sensitive tissue lining thew back of the eyeball

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accomodation

the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina

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Cones

photoreceptors that detect colour, operate under normal daylight conditions and allow us to focus on fine detail

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Rods

photoreceptors that only become active under low light conditions for night vision

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Fovea

an area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all

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Trichromatic Colour Representation

the pattern of responding across the three types of cones that provides a unique code for each colour

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colour opponent system

pairs of visual neurons that work in opposition

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Area v1

the initial processing region of the primary visual cortex

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topographic visual organisation

adjacent neurons process adjacent portions of the visual field

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visual form agnosia

the inability to recognise objects by sight

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affordances

potentials for possible actions by agents acting on the environment

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binding problem

how features are linked together so that we see unified objects in our visual world rather than free floating or miscombined features

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illusory conjunction

a perceptual mistake where features from multiple objects are incorrectly combined

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feature integration theory

a theory that proposes that attention binds individual features together to comprise a composite stimulus

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synaesthesia

the perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense

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modularisation

the process of relatively encapsulated function

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perceptual constancy

a perceptual principle that even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains constant

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template

a mental representation that can be directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal image

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structural enconding

how a pattern is represented

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monocular depth cues

aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye

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binocular disparity

the difference in the retinal image of the two eyes that provides information about depth

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motion parallax

a depth cue based on the movement of the head over time

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apparent motion

the perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations

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pitch

how high or low a sound is

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loudness

a sound's intensity

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timbre

a listener's experience of sound quality or resonance

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82

cochlea

a fluid-filled tube that is in the organ of auditory transduction

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basilar membrane

a structure in the inner ear that undulates when vibrations from the ossicles reach the cochlear fluid

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hair cells

specialised auditory receptor neurons embedded in the basilar membrain

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area a1

a protion of the temporal lobe that contains the primary auditory complex

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86

place code

the cochlea encodes different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane

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temporal code

the cochlea registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potentials entering the suditory nerve

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88

visual orienting

a behavioural response to move the eye towards a target

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multisensory integration

the perceptual representation of events from more than one sensory modality

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haptic perception

the active exploration on the environment by touching and grasping objects with our hands

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91

referred pain

feeling of pain when sensory information from internal and external areas converge on the same nerve cells in the spinal cord.

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92

gate-control theory

a theory of pain perception based on the idea that signals arriving from pain receptors in the body can be stopped, or gated, by interneurons in the spinal cord via feedback from two directions

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93

vestibular system

the three fluid-filled semicircular canals and the adjacent organs located next to the cochlea in each inner ear

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94

olfactory receptor neurons (orns)

receptor cells that initiate the sense of smell

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95

olfactory bulb

a brain structure located above the nasal cavity beneath the frontal lobes

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96

pheromones

biochemical odourants emitted by other members of their species that can affect an animal's behaviour or psychology

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97

taste buds

the organ of taste transduction

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98

neural coding of colour is an _______

opponent process

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99

chromatic adaptation ___________

reduces our sensitivity to the dominant wavelengths in the light within our current environment

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100

colour constancy

our tendency to perceive an object as the same colour, across changes to illumination

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