psych midterm

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Learning

1 / 209

Tags & Description

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
210
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
210 Terms
1
New cards

Learning

A process by which behavior or knowledge changes as a result of experience

New cards
2
New cards

Classical Conditioning

When a neutral stimulus gains the ability to elicit a response from an organism because it was associated with some other stimulus that reliability and automatically elicited that response in the past

New cards
3
New cards

Conditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

New cards
4
New cards

Conditioned responses

Elicited by the conditioned stimulus

New cards
5
New cards

Unconditioned stimulus

A stimulus that results in unlearned reflexive response

New cards
6
New cards

Unconditioned response

Reflexive unlearned response to the unconditioned stimulus

New cards
7
New cards

Neutral stimulus

A stimulus that with conditioning will elicit a response, but w/o conditioning, won't.

New cards
8
New cards

Stimulus

External event or cue that elicits a perceptual response

New cards
9
New cards

Acquisition

The initial phase of learning where a response is established

New cards
10
New cards

Extinction

losing/weakening of the CR as the CS and US are no longer paired.

New cards
11
New cards

CR becomes unnecessary if the CS is a no longer reliable predictor.

New cards
12
New cards

Previous CR can still return even after the extinction.

New cards
13
New cards

Spontaneous recovery

A recurrence of previously extinguished CR

New cards
14
New cards

Stimulus generalization

A process in which a response that originally occurred for a specific stimulus also occurs for different, specific stimuli

New cards
15
New cards

Discrimination

Response to original stimuli but not other similar stimuli (not paired*)

New cards
16
New cards

Conditioned emotional response

Consist of emotional and physiological responses to a specific object or situation

New cards
17
New cards

Preparedness

The biological predisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuli

New cards
18
New cards

Conditioned taste aversion

The dislike of food or drink because it was paired with illness

New cards
19
New cards

Latent inhibition

Occurs when frequent experience with a stimulus before it is paired with a US makes it less likely that conditioning will occur after a single episode of illness

New cards
20
New cards

Evaluative conditioning

An attempt to pair a stimulus with either positive or negative stimuli (eg. political strategy)

New cards
21
New cards

Operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by consequences

New cards
22
New cards

Contingency

A consequence depends on an action

New cards
23
New cards

Reinforcement

A process in which an event of reward that follows a response increases the likelihood of that response occurring again

New cards
24
New cards

Law of effect

The idea that responses followed by satisfaction will occur again in the same situation, whereas those that are not followed by satisfaction become less likely

New cards
25
New cards

Reinforcer

Stimulus contingent upon a response and that increases the probability of that response occurring again

New cards
26
New cards

Punishment

A process that decreases the future probability of a response

New cards
27
New cards

Punisher

A stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that results in a decrease of behaviour

New cards
28
New cards

Positive

Stimulus is added to a situation; refers to reinforcement or punishment

New cards
29
New cards

Negative

Stimulus removed from a situation; refers to reinforcement or punishment

New cards
30
New cards

Negative reinforcement

Involves the strengthening of a behaviour because it removes or diminishes a stimulus

New cards
31
New cards

Avoidance learning

A specific type of negative reinforcement that removes the possibility that a stimulus will occur

New cards
32
New cards

Escape learning

Occurs if a response removes a stimulus that is already present

New cards
33
New cards

Positive punishment

A process in which a behaviour decreases in frequency because it was followed by a usually unpleasant stimulus

New cards
34
New cards

Negative punishment

Occurs when a behaviour decreases because it removes or diminishes a particular stimulus

New cards
35
New cards

Shaping

Reinforcing successive approximations of a specific operant response

New cards
36
New cards

Chaining

Linking together two or more shaped behaviours into a more complex action or sequence of actions

New cards
37
New cards

Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)

Involves using close observation, prompting, and reinforcement to teach behaviours, often to people who experience difficulties and challenges owing to a developmental condition such as autism

New cards
38
New cards

Primary reinforcers

Consist of reinforcing stimuli that satisfy basic motivational needs that affect an organism's ability to survive (or reproduce)

New cards
39
New cards

Secondary reinforcers

Consist of stimuli that acquire their reinforcing effects only after we learn that they have value

New cards
40
New cards

Nucleus accumbens

Brain circuit activated during rewarding activities (eg. smoking a cig, sex)

New cards
41
New cards

Discriminative stimulus

A cue or event that indicates that a response (if made) will be reinforced

New cards
42
New cards

Generalization

This takes place when an operant response occurs in response to a new stimulus that is similar to the stimulus present during the original learning

New cards
43
New cards

Delayed reinforcement

Delayed response of rewarding feeling after stimulus. Hard to establish conditioned behaviour

New cards
44
New cards

Extinction

The weakening of an operant response when reinforcement is no longer available

New cards
45
New cards

Reward Devaluation

Behaviour change when reinforcer loses appeal

New cards
46
New cards

Schedules of reinforcement

Rules that determine when reinforcement is available

New cards
47
New cards

Continuous reinforcement

Every response made results in reinforcement. Reward provided every time

New cards
48
New cards

Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

Only a certain number of responses are rewarded, or a certain amount of time must pass before reinforcement is available

New cards
49
New cards

Ratio schedule

The reinforcements are based on the amount of responding

New cards
50
New cards

Interval Schedule

The reinforcements are based on the amount of time between reinforcements, not the number of responses an organism makes.

New cards
51
New cards

Fixed schedule

The schedule of reinforcement remains the same over time

New cards
52
New cards

Variable schedule

The schedule of reinforcement varies from reinforcement to reinforcement

New cards
53
New cards

Fixed ratio schedule

Reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been completed. Results in high rates of consistent responses

New cards
54
New cards

Variable ratio schedule

The number of responses required to receive reinforcement varies according to an average. High rates of consistent responses - more resistant to the extinction of behaviour (eg. gambling in a casino)

New cards
55
New cards

Fixed interval schedule

Reinforces the first response occurring after a set amount of time passes. Will result in slow unsustained responses (increase around time for reinforcement)

New cards
56
New cards

Variable interval schedule

The first response is reinforced following a variable amount of time. Results in slow but consistent responses

New cards
57
New cards

Partial reinforcement effect

Refers to a phenomenon in which organisms that have been conditioned under partial reinforcement resist extinction longer than those conditioned under continuous reinforcement

New cards
58
New cards

Classical Conditioning Example: Checking to see if the washing machine load is finished

fixed interval

New cards
59
New cards

Classical Conditioning Example: Slot machines

variable ratio

New cards
60
New cards

Classical Conditioning - Repeatedly dialing a busy number

variable interval - person answering reinforcer

New cards
61
New cards

Classical Conditioning Example: A rat gets reinforced for every 10th lever press

fixed ratio

New cards
62
New cards

Operant Conditioning Example: Using drugs to avoid withdrawal symptoms

negative reinforcement

New cards
63
New cards

Operant Conditioning Example: Being fined for a speeding ticket

positive punishment

New cards
64
New cards

Operant Conditioning Example: Not allowed outside because you didnt come home before dark

negative punishment

New cards
65
New cards

Operant Conditioning Example: A compliment from a supervisor at work

positive reinforcement

New cards
66
New cards

Difference between classical and operant conditioning

Classical - associate involuntary response and stimulus. Operant - associate behaviour a

New cards
67
New cards

Operant - associate voluntary behaviour and consequence

New cards
68
New cards

Latent learning

learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful

New cards
69
New cards

Observational learning

Involves changes in behaviour and knowledge that result from watching others

New cards
70
New cards

Attention

Must pay attention to behaviour of others and consequences

New cards
71
New cards

Retention

Storing mental representation in memory

New cards
72
New cards

Reproduction

Need to use what you saw as overt behaviour. To imitiate a behaviour we must string together the correct pattern of responses

New cards
73
New cards

Motivation

You need to be motivated to reproduce the behaviour

New cards
74
New cards

Imitation

Recreating someone else's motor behaviour or expression, often to accomplish a specific goal

New cards
75
New cards

Mirror neurons

Neurons are linked to functions ranging from understanding people's emotional states to observational learning

New cards
76
New cards

Stimulus organism response theory

Highlights the role played by an individual's interpretation of a situation

New cards
77
New cards

Higher order conditioning

Where we may start to pair a conditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus through a learning process. This leads to a conditioned response

New cards
78
New cards

Vicarious learning

learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action

New cards
79
New cards

Social learning theory

Social conditions are important determinants of behaviour

New cards
80
New cards

Bandura proposed humans are neither compelled by inner forces not totally controlled via envioronment. (classical / instrumental conditioning) Rather, via interactions between behaviors and the conditions that control them

New cards
81
New cards

Eg. bandura's bobo doll experiment: modelling of aggression w/ kids

New cards
82
New cards

Mirror neurons

Activated when you are doing an action or watching someone else perform the same action

New cards
83
New cards

Internally represent action

New cards
84
New cards

Memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

New cards
85
New cards

Stores

retain information in memory without using it for any specific purpose

New cards
86
New cards

Control processes

Shift information from one memory store to another

New cards
87
New cards

Attention

Selects which information will be passed on to STM

New cards
88
New cards

Encoding

The process of storing information in the LTM system

New cards
89
New cards

Attention needs to focus on things that are relevant for the processing of information

New cards
90
New cards

Encoding failure

Did not remember (perhaps due to lack of relevance)

New cards
91
New cards

Storage decay

Things become more difficult to retrieve since it's been long since the last retrieval

New cards
92
New cards

Retrieval failure

the inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues. May be able to access the memory at another time or with a cue

New cards
93
New cards

Sensory memory

A memory store that accurately holds perceptual information for a very brief amount of time (image or sound echo)

New cards
94
New cards

Echoic memory

The auditory form of sensory memory (2-5 secs long)

New cards
95
New cards

Iconic memory

The visual form of sensory memory

New cards
96
New cards

Episodic memory

A temporal sequence of visual surroundings

New cards
97
New cards

Short-term memory

A memory store with limited capacity and duration (30 sec approx). Most people can hold 7 items in short-term memory before they start dropping things from their memory to add new information

New cards
98
New cards

Chunking

Organizing smaller units into larger, more meaningful units (eg. using the cornell note taking technique for lectures)

New cards
99
New cards

Long-term memory

Long-term storage for long periods of time

New cards
100
New cards

No capacity limitation

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1046 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard121 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)