psych midterm

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Learning

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210 Terms

1

Learning

A process by which behavior or knowledge changes as a result of experience

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Classical Conditioning

When a neutral stimulus gains the ability to elicit a response from an organism because it was associated with some other stimulus that reliability and automatically elicited that response in the past

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Conditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

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Conditioned responses

Elicited by the conditioned stimulus

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5

Unconditioned stimulus

A stimulus that results in unlearned reflexive response

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6

Unconditioned response

Reflexive unlearned response to the unconditioned stimulus

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Neutral stimulus

A stimulus that with conditioning will elicit a response, but w/o conditioning, won't.

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8

Stimulus

External event or cue that elicits a perceptual response

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9

Acquisition

The initial phase of learning where a response is established

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10

Extinction

losing/weakening of the CR as the CS and US are no longer paired.

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CR becomes unnecessary if the CS is a no longer reliable predictor.

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Previous CR can still return even after the extinction.

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13

Spontaneous recovery

A recurrence of previously extinguished CR

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14

Stimulus generalization

A process in which a response that originally occurred for a specific stimulus also occurs for different, specific stimuli

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15

Discrimination

Response to original stimuli but not other similar stimuli (not paired*)

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16

Conditioned emotional response

Consist of emotional and physiological responses to a specific object or situation

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Preparedness

The biological predisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuli

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18

Conditioned taste aversion

The dislike of food or drink because it was paired with illness

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Latent inhibition

Occurs when frequent experience with a stimulus before it is paired with a US makes it less likely that conditioning will occur after a single episode of illness

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20

Evaluative conditioning

An attempt to pair a stimulus with either positive or negative stimuli (eg. political strategy)

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21

Operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is influenced by consequences

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22

Contingency

A consequence depends on an action

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23

Reinforcement

A process in which an event of reward that follows a response increases the likelihood of that response occurring again

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24

Law of effect

The idea that responses followed by satisfaction will occur again in the same situation, whereas those that are not followed by satisfaction become less likely

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25

Reinforcer

Stimulus contingent upon a response and that increases the probability of that response occurring again

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Punishment

A process that decreases the future probability of a response

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Punisher

A stimulus that is contingent upon a response, and that results in a decrease of behaviour

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Positive

Stimulus is added to a situation; refers to reinforcement or punishment

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Negative

Stimulus removed from a situation; refers to reinforcement or punishment

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30

Negative reinforcement

Involves the strengthening of a behaviour because it removes or diminishes a stimulus

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31

Avoidance learning

A specific type of negative reinforcement that removes the possibility that a stimulus will occur

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32

Escape learning

Occurs if a response removes a stimulus that is already present

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Positive punishment

A process in which a behaviour decreases in frequency because it was followed by a usually unpleasant stimulus

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34

Negative punishment

Occurs when a behaviour decreases because it removes or diminishes a particular stimulus

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35

Shaping

Reinforcing successive approximations of a specific operant response

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36

Chaining

Linking together two or more shaped behaviours into a more complex action or sequence of actions

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37

Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)

Involves using close observation, prompting, and reinforcement to teach behaviours, often to people who experience difficulties and challenges owing to a developmental condition such as autism

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38

Primary reinforcers

Consist of reinforcing stimuli that satisfy basic motivational needs that affect an organism's ability to survive (or reproduce)

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Secondary reinforcers

Consist of stimuli that acquire their reinforcing effects only after we learn that they have value

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Nucleus accumbens

Brain circuit activated during rewarding activities (eg. smoking a cig, sex)

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41

Discriminative stimulus

A cue or event that indicates that a response (if made) will be reinforced

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42

Generalization

This takes place when an operant response occurs in response to a new stimulus that is similar to the stimulus present during the original learning

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43

Delayed reinforcement

Delayed response of rewarding feeling after stimulus. Hard to establish conditioned behaviour

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44

Extinction

The weakening of an operant response when reinforcement is no longer available

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45

Reward Devaluation

Behaviour change when reinforcer loses appeal

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46

Schedules of reinforcement

Rules that determine when reinforcement is available

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47

Continuous reinforcement

Every response made results in reinforcement. Reward provided every time

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48

Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

Only a certain number of responses are rewarded, or a certain amount of time must pass before reinforcement is available

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Ratio schedule

The reinforcements are based on the amount of responding

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50

Interval Schedule

The reinforcements are based on the amount of time between reinforcements, not the number of responses an organism makes.

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Fixed schedule

The schedule of reinforcement remains the same over time

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Variable schedule

The schedule of reinforcement varies from reinforcement to reinforcement

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Fixed ratio schedule

Reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been completed. Results in high rates of consistent responses

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Variable ratio schedule

The number of responses required to receive reinforcement varies according to an average. High rates of consistent responses - more resistant to the extinction of behaviour (eg. gambling in a casino)

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Fixed interval schedule

Reinforces the first response occurring after a set amount of time passes. Will result in slow unsustained responses (increase around time for reinforcement)

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Variable interval schedule

The first response is reinforced following a variable amount of time. Results in slow but consistent responses

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Partial reinforcement effect

Refers to a phenomenon in which organisms that have been conditioned under partial reinforcement resist extinction longer than those conditioned under continuous reinforcement

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Classical Conditioning Example: Checking to see if the washing machine load is finished

fixed interval

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Classical Conditioning Example: Slot machines

variable ratio

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60

Classical Conditioning - Repeatedly dialing a busy number

variable interval - person answering reinforcer

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61

Classical Conditioning Example: A rat gets reinforced for every 10th lever press

fixed ratio

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Operant Conditioning Example: Using drugs to avoid withdrawal symptoms

negative reinforcement

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Operant Conditioning Example: Being fined for a speeding ticket

positive punishment

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Operant Conditioning Example: Not allowed outside because you didnt come home before dark

negative punishment

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Operant Conditioning Example: A compliment from a supervisor at work

positive reinforcement

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Difference between classical and operant conditioning

Classical - associate involuntary response and stimulus. Operant - associate behaviour a

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67

Operant - associate voluntary behaviour and consequence

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68

Latent learning

learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful

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69

Observational learning

Involves changes in behaviour and knowledge that result from watching others

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70

Attention

Must pay attention to behaviour of others and consequences

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71

Retention

Storing mental representation in memory

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72

Reproduction

Need to use what you saw as overt behaviour. To imitiate a behaviour we must string together the correct pattern of responses

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73

Motivation

You need to be motivated to reproduce the behaviour

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74

Imitation

Recreating someone else's motor behaviour or expression, often to accomplish a specific goal

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75

Mirror neurons

Neurons are linked to functions ranging from understanding people's emotional states to observational learning

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76

Stimulus organism response theory

Highlights the role played by an individual's interpretation of a situation

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77

Higher order conditioning

Where we may start to pair a conditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus through a learning process. This leads to a conditioned response

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Vicarious learning

learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action

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79

Social learning theory

Social conditions are important determinants of behaviour

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80

Bandura proposed humans are neither compelled by inner forces not totally controlled via envioronment. (classical / instrumental conditioning) Rather, via interactions between behaviors and the conditions that control them

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Eg. bandura's bobo doll experiment: modelling of aggression w/ kids

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82

Mirror neurons

Activated when you are doing an action or watching someone else perform the same action

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Internally represent action

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84

Memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

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85

Stores

retain information in memory without using it for any specific purpose

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86

Control processes

Shift information from one memory store to another

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87

Attention

Selects which information will be passed on to STM

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88

Encoding

The process of storing information in the LTM system

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89

Attention needs to focus on things that are relevant for the processing of information

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90

Encoding failure

Did not remember (perhaps due to lack of relevance)

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Storage decay

Things become more difficult to retrieve since it's been long since the last retrieval

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Retrieval failure

the inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues. May be able to access the memory at another time or with a cue

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93

Sensory memory

A memory store that accurately holds perceptual information for a very brief amount of time (image or sound echo)

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94

Echoic memory

The auditory form of sensory memory (2-5 secs long)

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95

Iconic memory

The visual form of sensory memory

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96

Episodic memory

A temporal sequence of visual surroundings

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97

Short-term memory

A memory store with limited capacity and duration (30 sec approx). Most people can hold 7 items in short-term memory before they start dropping things from their memory to add new information

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98

Chunking

Organizing smaller units into larger, more meaningful units (eg. using the cornell note taking technique for lectures)

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99

Long-term memory

Long-term storage for long periods of time

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100

No capacity limitation

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