Muscular System - Anatomy & Physiology

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orbicularis oris location

surrounds motth, closes and protrudes the lips

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orbicularis oculi location

surrounds the eye

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orbicularis oculi function

blinks and closes eye

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orbicularis oris function

closes and protrudes the lips

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frontalis function

raises eyebrows

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frontalis location

forehead/frontal bone

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temporalis location

temporal bone

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temporalis function

closes the jaw

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masseter location

large cheek muscle spanning from temporal bone to the mandible

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masseter function

jaw closing/movement

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zygomaticus location

cheek, mouth to cheekbone

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zygomaticus function

raises corners of mouth, smiling

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sternocleidomastoid location

lateral neck

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sternocleidomastoid function

inferior rotation of head (bowing)

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pectoralis major location

upper chest

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pectoralis major function

adduct and flexes the humerus (arm)

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deltoid location

covers shoulder

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deltoid function

abducts humerus, raises the arm

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bicep brachii (2) location

anterior humerus

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bicep brachii (2) function

flexes the elbow

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external oblique location

lateral abdomen

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external oblique function

flexes and rotates the torso

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rectus abdominis location

medial anterior abdomen (6 pack)

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rectus abdominis function

anterior flexion of the torso (crunches) & posture

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transverse abdominis location

lateral hip

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transverse abdominis function

compresses the abdomen for posture

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sartorius location

lays across the thigh, from lateral him to medial knee

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sartorius function

crosses the leg “tailor’s muscle”, synergist

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iliopsoas location

medial thigh/groin

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iliopsoas function

flexes hip and adducts the leg

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adductor group location

medial thigh/groin

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adductor group function

adduct the legs together

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rectus femoris location

anterior femur, runs across knee

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rectus femoris function

extends knee, flexes the thigh at the hip

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vastus lateralis location

lateral/anterior femur

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vastus lateralis function

extends the knee

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abductor group location

lateral thigh/hip

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abductor group function

abduct legs

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vastus medialis location

medial anterior femur

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vastus medialis function

extends the knee

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vastus intermedius location

intermediate femur, deep to the rectus femoris

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vastus intermedius function

extends the knee

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fibularis longus location

lateral lower leg, on fibula

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fibularis longus function

plantar flexion and eversion of the foot

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tibialis anterior location

shin

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tibialis anterior function

dorsi flexion of the foot

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trapezius location

posterior superior back and neck

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trapezius function

extends head (look up) and shrugs shoulders

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rear deltoid location

posterior shoulder

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rear deltoid function

posterior abduction

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latissimus deltoid location

lower back “v-shape”

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latissimus deltoid function

adducts the arm

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tricep brachii (3) location

posterior humerus

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tricep brachii (3) function

extends elbow

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gluteus maximus location

buttocks

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gluteus maximus function

extends the hip for walking/climbing

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gluteus medius location

superior hip, deep to gluteus maximus

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gluteus medius function

posterior thigh abduction (donkey kick); synergist

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biceps femoris location

posterior femur

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biceps femoris function

flex the knee and extends the hip

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semitendinosus location

posterior femur

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semitendinosus function

flex the knee and extends the hip

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semimembranosus location

posterior femur

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semimembranosus function

flex the knee and extends the hip

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gastrocnemius location

calf; posterior tibia

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gastrocnemius function

plantar flexion of foot (tip-toes)

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three types of muscle tissue

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

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skeletal muscle tissue functions

move bones, generate heat (friction of contraction), maintain posture, facial expressions

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epimysium

outermost connective tissue covering of a muscle; extends from the tendons that attack muscle to bone

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fascicles

bundle of tens of thousands of individual muscle fibers (cells)

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perimysium

surrounding of each fascicle

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muscle fiber

actual muscle cells; each covered by an endomysium

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myofibrils

repeated contractile units that compose muscle fiber

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myofibril composition

light and dark bands that give appearance of striations; myofilaments

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myofilaments

overlapping protein fibers that make up myofibrils

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actin

thin (myo)filaments

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myosin

thick (myo)filaments

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sarcomere

place of filament overlap (actual contractile unit)

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irritability

ability to receive and respond to stimulus (nerve impulse)

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contractility

ability to contract in response to a nerve impulse

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first step of nerve stimulus

impulse reaches end of neuron at neuromuscular junction

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second step of nerve stimulus

neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) is secreted into synaptic cleft between dendrite and muscle cell

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third step of nerve stimulus

ACh binds to receptors on the sarcolemma (endomysium), opends gated sodium channels

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fourth step of nerve stimulus

Na+ rush into cell, building action potential

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final step of nerve stimulus

action potential reaches threshold, impulse moves down the entire muscle fiber, causing contraction

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action potential releases

Ca+ (calcium) from sarcoplasmic reticulum

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Ca+ bind to

actin (thin) filaments, exposing binding sites for myosin

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cross-bridges

formation of bound myosin filament heads to newly exposed actin filaments

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shortening of myofibrils caused by

pulling of myosin heads towards center of sarcomere

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ATP energy

required to recock myosin heads / reattach to actin filaments

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relaxation occurs

when action potential subsides (calcium is reabsorbed, sarcomere returns to resting state

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all or none

individual muscles will contract fully, never partially

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graded contraction

varying of the number of muscle cells that contract and the rate at which they contract, depending on force needed

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aerobic cellular respiration

assembling of ATP energy in mitochondria, requires oxygen

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muscle fatigue

occurs when oxygen levels drop, causing cell resp. to slow and limiting ATP available for contraction

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anaerobic respiration

breakdown of glucose w/o oxygen, increases lactic acid fermentation, causes cramping

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lack of ATP effect

muscle failure

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twitch

single muscle contraction

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summing

successive contractions that lead to stronger and smoother contractions

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tetanus

contraction & relaxation occurring so rapidly that no apparent relaxation occurs, results in cramping

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