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what is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things

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Biology

10th

116 Terms

1

what is the basic structural and functional unit of all living things

Cell

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2

what is cell theory

all organisms are composed of cells

all cells come only from pre existing cells

cells are the smallest structural and functional unit of organism

cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA

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3

what ate the different types of light microscopy

conofocal, fluorescence, brightfield

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4

how does a compound microscope enlarge the image

The compound microscope uses lenses and light to enlarge the image

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5

what are the 2 systems of lenses that the compound microscope has for greater magnification

  1. the ocular or eyepeice lens

2)objective lens or lense closest to the object

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6

what is the compound microscope

an optical instrument consisting of two convex lenses of short focal lengths which is used for observing the highly magnified images of tiny objects.

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7

how many convex lenses does a compound microscope have

2

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8

what are the 2 convex lenses of short focal lengths used for in a compound microscope

observing highly magnified images of tiny objects.

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9

what do cells and tissues determine

the form and function of the body

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10

what do cells and tissues do

carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life

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11

what are cells specialized to do

perform special functions

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12

examples of cells

red blood cells, plant stem, nerve cell, bacteria, amoeba proteus.

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13

what are the 3 main regions of a cell

nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane

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14

what are organelles

specialized structures within cells, they perform specific functions

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15

what are the functions of a cell

  1. cell metabolism and energy use

  2. sythesis of molecules

  3. communication

  4. reproduction and inheritance

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16

what are organisms made out of one cell called

unicellular organism

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17

examples of unicellular organisms

bacteria

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18

what is a unicellular organism

organisms made our of one cells

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19

what are organisms made out of many cells called

multicellular organisms

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20

examples of multicellualr organisms

plants, animals

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21

what is a multicellular organism

organism made of many cells

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22

what does prokaryotic mean

organisms that do not have a distinct nucleus

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23

example of a prokaryot

bacteria

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24

what does eukaryotic mean

organisms with cells that have true nucleus and organelles

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25

example of eukaryotic

plants, animals, and fungi

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26

what are the characteristics of a prokaryotic

no nucleus

no membrane bound organelles

has cell walls

has circular chromosomes

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27

common cells structures of prokaryotic

plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA, Ribosomes

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28

what shape chromosomes does prokaryotic have

circular

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29

what does domain Eukarya include

protists

fungi

plants

animals

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30

what do the cells of eukaryotic cells contain

Membrane-bound nucleus that houses DNA

Specialized organelles

Plasma membrane

some cells have a cell wall

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31

which cells are bigger, prokaryotic or eukaryotic

eukaryotic are much larger then prokaryotic

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32

what does a typical animals cells consist of

plasma cells membrane

endoplasmic reticulum

nucleus

ribosome

golgi

mitochondria

lysosome

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33
<p>label the animal cells</p>

label the animal cells

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34

what are the charcteristics of a cell membrane

fluid mosaic bilayers surround the cell content

it controls the ins/outs of the cells

gives the cells stability during temperature changes

important in cell recognition

cell signaling

cell adhesion

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35

what is cytoplasm

gel like medium that holds the organells in position

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36

what does the nucleus consist of

double nuclear envelope

nuclear pore

nucleoplasm

nucleolus

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37

what do double nuclear envelopes do

enclose/protect DNA

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38

what does nuclear pore do

receives substances for DNA replication, exits for mRNA

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39

what is nucleoplasm contain

chromatin granules, DNA associated proteins.

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40

what does nucleolus do

produces rRNA part of ribosomes, proteins, coenzymes, enzymes for nucleic acid synthesis, RNA

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41

what are ribosomes

the cells protein factories

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42

what do ribosomes do

make protein

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43

what is rough Endoplasminc Reticulum covered in

ribosomes

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44

what do ribosomes on the surface do

synthesize proteins which are then transported through the interconnected system

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45

what is the rough endoplasmic reticulum

interconnected system of flattened sacs

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46

what is smooth endoplasmic reticulum

system of interconnected tubules

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47

what does the smoothe ER synthesisze

triglycerided, phospholipid, cholesterol

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48

does smooth ER have ribosomes

no

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49

what does smooth ER modify

steroid hormones

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50

what liquid is cytoplasm made out of

cytosol

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51

where does metabolism take place

cytoplasm

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52

what does cytoplasm contain

water/solution

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53

where do most organelles float

cytoplasm

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54

what floats in the cytoplasm

organelles

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55

what does the mitochondria consist of

double membrane

outer membrane

inner membranes

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56

what does the double membrane in mitochondria do

it isolates certain reaction

substrates can be maintained

high concentration of enzymes

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57

what is the outer membrane in the mitochondria permeable to

salt, sugar, nucleotides

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58

what does the inner membrane in the mitochondria do

it controls chemical composition of the matrix and optimizes enzyme activity

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59

how many subunits do ribosomes have

2

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60

what are ribosomes made out of

rRNA/protein

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61

where is rRNA formed

nucleus and moves out via pored

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62

where is the protein part of the ribosomes assembled

the cytoplasm

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63

what are lysosomes

vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes

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64

what do lysosomes do

break down old organelles and recycle the materials

break down storage materials

break down whole cell when it dies

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65

what are vacuoles

sac like structures for storage

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66

what do golgi apparatus do

processes and packages protein and other substances produced in the ER. it modifies, sorts, and packages proteins for secretion

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67

what does the cytoskeleton consist of

microtubules, micro filaments, intermediate filaments

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68

where are centrosomes found

only inside eukaryotic/animal cells.

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69

what do centrisomes comprise of

2 centrioles that are essentially just rings of microtubules

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70

what are centrioles

Paired organelles found together near the nucleus, at right angles to each other.

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71

what do centrioles play a role in

building cilia and flagella

they play a roles in cellular reproduction

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72

what do microtubules do

shape the cell

guide the movements of cells/organelles with the help of motor proteins

make up spindles that seperate chromosomes during cell division

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73

what organelles are found in plant cells only

cell wall and chloroplast

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74

what is cell wall mainly composed of

cellulose(fibre for our diet)

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75

what does chloroplast make

it makes glucose using the energy from the sun(photsynthesis)

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76

what are cilia/flagella

long structure projecting out of a cell membrane

a core of microtubules sheathed by the plasma

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77

is flageelum or cilia longer

flagellum is longer and cillia is shorter

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78

what is flagellum for

the movement of the cell

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79

what is the cillia for

to beat up things

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80
<p>label the plant cell</p>

label the plant cell

knowt flashcard image
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81
<p>compare and contrast plant and animal cells</p>

compare and contrast plant and animal cells

knowt flashcard image
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82

what would happen to a cell if it didnt have a cells wall

it wouldnt have a shape

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83

what color is chloroplast

green

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84

what is a specialized cell

a cell that has a special shape and features that help it to do its job

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85

plant example of specialized cells

leaf cells contain many chloroplasts to maximize photosynthesis

stem cell(potato) contains many vacuoles to maximize water and starch storage

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86

why do stem cells contain many vacuoles

to maximize water and starch storgae

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87

why do leaf cells contain many chloroplasts

to maximize photosythesis

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88

where is a palisade cell found

top of the leaf

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89

what is the structure of a palisade cell

it is tall and has a large surface area to catch as much sunlight as possible and is packed with chloroplasts to absorb light

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90

what is the function of a palisade cell

to carry out photsynthesis

to help make plant food

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91

examples of specialised plant cells

xylem cells

phloem cells

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92

what do xylem cells do

transport water and mineral ions from the roots to the leaves.

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93

what are xylem cells made out of

cells that have dies and the cell walls have broken down between them forming hollow tubes strengthened by lignin

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94

what do phloem cells do

transport the products of photosythesis(glucose) from the leaves to the rest of the plant

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95

what is phloem cells made out of

living cells where the cell wall has broken down between cells to form sieve plates that sllow sugars to flow freely by translocation

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96

what is the structure of a root hair cell

large surface area

thin cell wall

no chlorplasts

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97

what is the function of root hair cell

absorb minerals and wate soil

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98

why does a root hair cell have a large surface area

to absorb lots of water

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99

why does a root hair cell have a thin cell wall

to allow water to pass through easily

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100

why do epithlial cells have villi

to increase nutrient absorption found in the intestines

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