Fascism foriegn policy

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What did Mussolini condemn following WW1?

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What did Mussolini condemn following WW1?

Mutilated victory

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What was Mussolini's general aim for Italian foreign policy?

To make Italy 'great, respected and feared'

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How would Italy achieve Great power status?

-Military build up-Diplomatic intrigue-war

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Why did Mussolini's plans lack detail until the 1930s?

-Mussolini not sure what colonies to expand-Didn't know how he would achieve dominance in Mediterranean-Not sure how much power he desired in Balkans

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What did the Duce soon recognise foreign affairs could provide him with?

-Impress fellow countrymen with spectacles overshadowing foreign statesmen-Defend and promote Italian interests with unending success-Reap international prestige and domestic support

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Why was Mussolini's foreign policy not a new era for Italy even though he believed this?

As the desire for Great Power status, high military expenditure and colonial adventures were also part of the Liberal regime

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How did Mussolini exceed his Liberal predecessors in foreign policy?

Pursued his goals more relentlessly and recklessly

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What was Italy's position in Europe in 1922?

Secure but unable to exert a great deal of influence either diplomatically or militarily

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Why had Italys potential threat to its northern border been removed?

Friendship with France and dismemberment of Austro-Hungarian empire and had no powerful enemies

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Who were the dominant powers of Europe in 1922?

Britain and France

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Why did Britain and France dominate Europe?

-They enforced WW1 peace treaties-Their colonies dominated Africa-Fleets controlled Mediterranean

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When was an Italian general and four of his staff assassinated in Greece?

August 1923

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Who were the Italian general and his staff assassinated in Greece working for?

The international boundary commission set under terms of peace settlement advising on precise location of Greek-Albanian border

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What did Mussolini do once hearing of the assassinations?

Blamed the Greek government and demanded a full apology with 50 million lire full in compensation

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What did Mussolini do when the Greeks refused to agree to his terms?

Ordered the bombardment and occupation of the island of Corfu

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What did Britain do in support of the league?

Demanded that Italy withdraw, backed by its Mediterranean fleet

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What did the Duce do once Britain demanded they withdrew?

Duce had little choice but to agree, although he did receive the 50 million lire compensation, did not receive fully apology from Greeks

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What was the Corfu crisis hailed as for Italy?

A great success for dynamic fascism

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What did the Corfu crisis show about Mussolini and Italy?

They may be able to bully the smaller powers but they were unable to stand up to 'great powers'

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What did the realisation that Italy was not able to stand up to the Great powers show to Mussolini?

Made him aware of the need to maintain good relations with Britain, at least for short term

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Who was an early admirer of the Mussolini's Fascist regime?

Austen Chamberlain the British Foreign Secretary

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When was the Pact of Rome?

1924

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What did the Pact of Rome give to Italy?

Fiume, an Italian speaking town on the Yugoslavian coast, occupied by D'Annunzio in 1919 after Mutilated victory

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What did Mussolini's success from Fiume bring him?

Great prestige and popularity as Italians believed it was unrightfully not ceded to them after WW1

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What did the Duce's success in Fiume persuade him about?

That Yugoslavia could be pushed around

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What did Mussolini resent in Yugoslavia?

French influence and he was keen to demonstrate that Italy was the dominant power of the region

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What did he want to make clear to Yugoslavia?

That he could make life very difficult for Yugoslavia if they tried to resist Italian influence

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What was an opportunity to promote Italian influence in Yugoslavia?

When Italian-sponsored chieftain, Ahmed Zog, managed to take power in Albania on Yugoslavia southern border

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What did the Italian Fascist government supply Zog with?

-Money-Encouraged Italian companies to invest in Albanian economy-Employed Italian officers as advisers in Albanian army

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When was the Treaty of Friendship signed with Albania?

1926

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What was Albania to Italy be 1926?

No more than a Satellite state

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What is a Satellite state?

A country that is heavily influenced or virtually controlled by another state

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How did Mussolini emphasise his military threat to Yugoslavia?

His funding of ethnic minorities e.g. the Croats who wanted to break away from Yugoslavian state

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How did Yugoslavia respond to Mussolini's military threat?

Trying it's best not to antagonise Fascist Italy but refused to be intimidated into subservience

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When did Mussolini occupy much of Yugoslavia?

In WW2 after it was defeated by Nazi Germany

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When was the Locarno Treaties?

October 1925

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What was the Locarno Treaties?

An effort to ensure peace between Germany and France by stating borders between nations were effectively fixed

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Did Mussolini read much of the legislation published?

No

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What was Mussolini's policy going into Locarno?

To increase his hold on the Mediterranean to allow full of his navy

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Why did Mussolini believe relations with Germany would be more successful for his Meditation aims?

As the British had a great hold their and had already made him withdraw Corfu in 1923

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When did Mussolini join the Locarno treaties?

On the final day

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What did Mussolini wish to achieve by arriving at Locarno on the final day?

Portraying himself as a major statesmen and a propaganda stunt

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What did the Treaty of Friendship with Albania (1926) declare?

-Disturbance in Albania is contrary to their common political interests-Italian officers and ranking members and police oversee Albanian army-Both would provide economic and military support for the other-Both nations wouldn't pursue anything that harmed other nation e.g. politically-Pact would last 5 years

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When was the Treaty of Friendship with Hungary?

1927

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What type of state was Hungary?

A revisionist state

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What is a revisionist state?

State that wishes to change peace treaties after WW1

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What did Mussolini fund in Germany to hope of pro-Fascist government would come out there?

Right-wing groups

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Which pilots did Mussolini train that breached the treaty of Versailles?

German pilots

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What did Mussolini tell the Italian parliament in 1927 in regard to his air force?

He would create an airforce 'large enough to blot out the sun'

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When was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?

August 1928

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What did the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 outlaw?

War

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What did Mussolini again try and achieve at the Kellog-Briand pact?

Becoming a major European statesmen

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How did Mussolini arrive to Locarno?

By speedboat across Lake Maggiore

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What did Italian press state about Mussolini being involved in these major European pacts?

That he was treated as an equal with the leaders of the Great Powers and that his presence and contributions had been crucial for the final agreement.

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Why was the idea that Mussolini a major contributor to the European treaties an exaggeration?

As he attended only one session of the conference and did not bother to read the final draft of the treaties

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What did the British and Italians agree over their African colonies?

The location of their borders between Libya and Egypt

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What did Mussolini have little interest in doing?

Reading pacts and treaties

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What did Mussolini hope his aim to be a European statesmen maintaining peace would earn him from Britain and France?

Concessions

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What did Mussolini do immediately after the Kellog-Briand pact outlawing war?

Dismissed it in a speech to the same parliament

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Why did the regime adopt a more aggressive foreign policy?

To distract people from the failings at home e.g. Corporate state

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What had the rise of Nazism done for Italian foreign policy?

Transformed European situation and opened way for Italian ambition

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When was the four power pact?

1933

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What was the four power pact an opportunity for?

Mussolini to demonstrate his importance for bringing together Britain, France, Germany and Italy

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Why was the Four Power Pact called together?

As a means of better international security and giving smaller nations less of a voice in power politics

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What was the Four power pact on the back of?

The Great Depression and Nazi rise to power

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What did representatives sign?

A diluted version of Mussolini's first proposal

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What was Mussolini's goal in Four Power Pact?

To reduce power of smaller states in League of Nations

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What significance did the Four Power Pact have?

Little but was not completely devoid of merit

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What did Mussolini realise a sting resurgent Germany seeking to revise the he Treaty of Versailles would do for Italy?

Frighten Britain and France and make them more amenable to Italian demands

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Why was Mussolini apprehensive about Nazi Germany?

-Feared he would be overshadowed by the new Führer-Scared of Anschluss would put Germany on Italy northern border

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What is Anschluss?

Union of Austria and Germany

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What May Italy be threatened to give to Germany if Anschluss occurred?

German-speaking areas in north-eastern Italy gained at Paris peace conference 1919

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What did the Austrian government fear of Anschluss?

That it would effectively be the takeover of the weaker military power (Austria) by a stronger power (Germany)

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What did Austrian chancellor Dolfuss do?

Looked for outside support

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How many times did Dolfuss visit Rome in 1933?

3 times

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What was Dolfuss told from Italy?

That he should suppress the Nazi party in Austria and Italy would protect Austria from any German aggression

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What did Mussolini encourage Dolfuss to do in February 1934?

Set up a right wing authoritarian regime partly modelled on Italian fascism but would be anti-Nazi

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When was Dolfuss assassinated?

July 1934

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Who assassinated Dolfuss?

Nazi sympathisers

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Who was Engrlbert Dolfuss?

A Catholic conservative politician who came to power in 1932

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Where did Dolfuss and Mussolini informally meet?

In the Italian Riveria with their wives

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What did Italy pour into Austria?

Substantial financial support

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What was the salaries of Austrian government officials and civil servants almost entirely dependent on?

Aid from Italy

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How did Mussolini seize the moment following the assassination of Dolfuss?

He showed his commitment to Austria by stationing an army of four divisions on the Austrian border at the Brenner Pass

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On hearing of Dolfuss assassination what did Mussolini call Hitler?

'a horrible sexual degenerate'

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When was the Stresa Front?

April 1935

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How did relations of Italy and Germany reach of low in March 1935?

Hitler revealed he had developed an air force, the Luftwaffe, in breach of Versailles and announced he was introducing military conscription

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What size did Hitler introduce military conscription of the army over the Versailles limit?

Army five times the permitted amount in the peace settlement

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How did Mussolini respond to Hitler breaching Versailles?

By agreeing to meet Britain and France in Italian town of Stresa to organise a joint response to German threat

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What was Mussolini's attitude towards Britain and France?

Contradictory

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What did Mussolini regard Britain as?

A colonial rival blocking his foreign policy ambitions

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How was Britain useful to Italy?

A useful ally in countering rise of Germany

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Who was Italy's ambassador to Britain?

Dino Grandi who was in favour of keeping good relations with them

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How did Mussolini arrive to Stresa?

By speedboat across Lake maggiore

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What did the final declaration of the Stresa front set out?

-Three powers underline their support for Locarno 1925-Maintain independence of Austria-Prevent further breaches of the treaties-Germany unnamed

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Why did Stresa not bring the Western democracies closer together?

-Agreements vaguely expressed and avoided specific commitments-No effective way of stopping Hitler-Italy and France had hardline policy towards Hitler-Britain open to negotiationsMussolini actively planning invasion of Abyssinia

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What would Mussolini's invasion of Abyssinia be against?

Covenant of the League of Nations

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Why did Mussolini weaken the agreement at Stresa?

Careful to release his true intentions

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What did Britain do in June 1935 without consulting Italy and France?

Negotiated the Anglo-German Naval agreement

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What was the Anglo-German Naval Agreement?

Germany agreed to keep its navy 35% of the size of the British navy

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