bio (characteristics of life and the first chem unit ) review

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Observation

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Biology

9th

198 Terms

1

Observation

Using your senses to gather information

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2

Predicting

guessing the most likely outcome of a future event based upon a pattern of evidence

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3

classifying

grouping or ordering objects or events into categories based upon their characteristics

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4

measuring

using the standard measuring units to gather a type of quantitative data (Ex: volume, length, width)

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5

inferring

making assumptions based on observations that could potentially explain something

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6

communicating

using words, symbols, to describe an object, action or event to share information

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7

predicting, classifying, observation, measuring, inferring, communicating

what are the 6 basic science process steps? (P.COMIC)

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8

biology

what is the scientific study of life?

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9

science

what is an approach to understanding that is based on inquiry

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10

exploration

what does biology begin with (like other sciences)

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11

data

recorded observations, information you have gathered from your experiment

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12

hypothesis

a proposed explanation or educated guess for your experiment

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13

testable and falsifiable

a hypothesis must be BLANK and BLANK

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14

phenomena

scientists seek natural causes for natural BLANK

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15

results

BLANK will support or not support the hypothesis

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16

peer review

In order to publish something the writing must be evaluated by an anonymous scientist, this process is known as a BLANK

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17

theory

An explanation of phenomena that was based off of many hypothesis and experiments from valid scientists

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18

hypothesis, theory

a lot of BLANK leads to a BLANK

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19

fact

a BLANK is a piece of information considered TRUE based off all current evidence

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20

variables

BLANK are factors that change in an experiment

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21

control group

what group will NOT be affected by the independent variable

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22

experimental group

what group WILL be affected by the independent variable

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23

controlled experiment

a BLANK is a type of experiment that tests one factor at a time

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24

x

what axis is the independent variable on

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25

y

what axis is the dependent variable on

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26

placebo

something which has a positive mental effect, but no physical effect

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27

double blind controlled study

what is the gold standard for a medical trial.

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28

pseudoscience

A fake or false science that makes claims based on little or no scientific evidence.

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29

anecdotal evidence

what type of evidence is opinion based and is based off one or little examples? usually is used in pseudoscience

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30

all organisms are made up of one or more cells

what is the 1st characteristic of life?

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31

displays organization

what is the second characteristic of life?

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32

grows and develops

what is the 3rd characteristic of life?

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33

responds to stimuli

what is the 4th characteristic of life?

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34

requires energy

what is the 5th characteristic of life?

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35

maintains homeostasis

what is the 6th characteristic of life?

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36

adapts and evolves over time

what is the 7th characteristic of life?

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37

it reproduces

what is the 8th characteristic of life?

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38

independent variable

the factor that changes during the experiment and is being tested

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39

dependent variable

the outcome of the independent variable, the thing that's being measured

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40

sources of error

unexpected errors that can be made in. your experiment

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41

bias

a prejudice or opinion someone has through life experiences

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42

stimulus

a trigger that sets off physical or behavioral differences

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43

sexual reproduction

the process of organism combining genetic information

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44

asexual reproduction

reproduction without the fusion of living organisms

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45

homeostasis

a balance created by the body in order to survive and function

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46

metabolism

when the body converts what you consume into energy

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47

cells

a small unit of life in every living thing

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48

evolve

when the species change due to the environment

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49

biosphere

the parts of Earth that contain living organisms

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50

what is matter

It is anything that has mass and takes up space

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51

what is mass

the amount of matter in an object

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52

What is a element?

a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions

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53

what is the atomic number?

number of protons and electrons

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54

What is the atomic mass?

mass of the atom

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55

STARRED: of the BLANK naturally occurring elements, 25 are essential to people

92

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56

STARRED: BLANK are required in only very small amounts and are essential for life

trace elements

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57

Elements can combine to form BLANK, substances that contain two or more elements in a fixed ratio.

compounds

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58

what are the most common elements in a living organism?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

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59

what is a fixed ratio?

a ratio is used to compare the amount of elements in a chemical formula

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60

atom

the smallest unit of matter

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61

a proton is

positively charged

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62

an electron is

negatively charged

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63

a neutron is

electrically charged

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64

how many atomic mass units does a proton have? (AMU)

1 amu

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65

how do you get the number of neutrons?

subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass number

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66

what is an isotope?

same number of protons, different number of neutrons

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67

what is a radioactive isotope?

an isotope that is unstable and the nucleous decays spontaneously

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68

what is a chemical bond?

the force that holds two atoms together

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69

what are atoms that are electrically charged as a result of gaining and losing electrons

ions

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70

what is formed between oppositely charged ions

ionic bonds

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71

what are cations

positively charged ions

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72

what is anion?

A negatively charged ion

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73

What is a covalent bond?

A chemical bond formed when two or atoms share electrons.

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74

covalent bonds hold together atoms in BLANK

molecules

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75

What is a non-polar bond?

a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally

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76

What is a polar covalent bond?

unequal sharing of electrons

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77

Is water polar or non-polar?

polar

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78

hydrogen bonds

weak attraction between water molecules

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79

REMINDER: you must draw the H20 in a model for the test (type: ok)

ok

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80

what are chemical reactions?

the making and breaking of chemical bonds

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81

reactants

the input of a chemical reaction

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82

products

the output of a chemical reaction

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83

what percentage of matter are our cells made up of?

70-95%

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84

water molecules stick together as a result of BLANK

hydrogen bonding

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85

what is cohesion

molecules of the same kind sticking together

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86

what is surface tension?

A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

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87

what is adhesion?

when molecules stick to something

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88

What is evaporative cooling?

As a liquid evaporates, its remaining surface cools

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89

a chunk of ice floats because...

its less dense

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90

What is a solution?

a mixture of solute and solvent

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91

what is solvent

the substance in which the solute dissolves in

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92

what is solute?

the substance that is dissolved

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93

what is aqeous solution?

a chemical compound that releases H+ to solution

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94

what is an acid?

a compound that accepts H+ and removes them from solution

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95

what are buffers?

they minimize changes in pH

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96

How do ionic bonds form?

When one element that wants one or more electrons to fill its outer electron shells is strong enough to take one or more electrons from another element.

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97

what type of bond is formed when the electronegativity difference is 1.5 or higher

ionic bond

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98

what type of bond is formed when the electronegativity difference is 1.5 or lower

covalent bond

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99

acclimation

Physiological adjustment that occurs gradually, though still reversibly, in response to an environmental change.

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100

aphotic zone

The region of an aquatic ecosystem beneath the photic zone, where light levels are too low for photosynthesis to take place.

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