KINE 340: Exam 2

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least movable end of the muscle

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Tags and Description

Biomechanics (2), Program Design for Resistance Training (17), Periodization (21)

105 Terms

1

least movable end of the muscle

what is the origin of the muscle?

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2

most movable end of the muscle

what is the insertion of the muscle?

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3

agonist

what is the muscle most directly involved in bringing about a movement, also known as the prime mover?

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4

antagonist

what is the muscle that can slow down or stop the movement?

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5

synergist

what is the muscle that assists indirectly in a movement?

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6

false

true or false

all muscles in the body act through levers

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7

bony levers

what do body movements directly involved in sport and exercise primarily act through?

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8

moment arm

what is the distance between the fulcrum and the area where force is applied

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9

mechanical advantage

what is the ratio of the moment arm through which an applied force acts to that through which a resistive force acts?

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10

mechanical advantage

is it a mechanical advantage or disadvantage when a person can apply less force than the resistive force to produce an equal amount of torque?

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11

mechanical disadvantage

is it a mechanical advantage or disadvantage when a person must apply greater force than the amount of resistive force present?

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12

first class lever

what type of lever has the muscle force and resistive force acting on opposite sides of the fulcrum?

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13

seesaw, sesamoid bone, triceps, neck muscles

what are examples of first class levers?

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14

false (can be advantage or disadvantage)

true or false

first class levers are always at a mechanical disadvantage

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15

second class lever

what type of lever has the muscle force and resistive force on the same side of the fulcrum with the muscle force having a longer moment arm?

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16

true

true or false

second class levers are always at a mechanical advantage

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17

wheelbarrow

what is an example of a second class lever?

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18

third class lever

what is a type of lever where the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum but the muscle force has a shorter movement arm?

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19

paddling, throwing a baseball

what is an example of a third class lever?

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20

false (disadvantage)

true or false

third class levers are always at a mechanical advantage

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21

high velocity of movement or great range of motion

what are benefits of third class levers?

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22

more work and force, less mechanical efficiency

what are drawbacks of third class levers?

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23

maintaining quad tendon’s distance from knee’s axis of rotation

how does the patella increase the mechanical advantage of the quadriceps muscle group?

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24

third class levers

what type of levers are most muscles in the body?

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25

speed

do more proximal tendon insertions lead to greater speed or strength?

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26

strength

do more distal tendon insertions lead to greater speed or strength?

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27

higher movement velocities

why does olympic weightlifting have a much higher power component than the sport of powerlifting?

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28

concentric

what is the type of muscle contraction in which the muscle is shortening because the contractile force is greater than the resistive force?

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29

how much force a muscle can produce

what do concentric contractions determine?

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30

eccentric

what is the type of muscle contraction in which the muscle is lengthening because the contractile force is less than the resistive force?

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31

how much force a muscle can withstand

what do eccentric contractions determine?

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32

isometric

what is the type of muscle contraction in which the muscle does not change in length because contractile force is equal to resistive force?

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33

less

when weight is horizontally closer to a joint, does it exert more or less resistive torque?

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34

more

when weight is horizontally farther from a joint, does it exert more or less resistive torque?

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35

movement, physiological, injury

what analyses are used to evaluate the requirements and characteristics of the sport in a needs analysis?

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36

movement analysis

what type of analysis analyzes body and limb movement patterns and muscular involvement?

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37

physiological analysis

what type of analysis analyzes the strength, power, hypertrophy, and muscular endurance priorities?

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38

injury analysis

what type of analysis analyzes common sites for joint and muscle injury and causative factors?

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39

adduction of hip, internal rotation of hip, anterior translation of tibia

what are the mechanisms of injury for an ACL tear?

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40

low sport practice, high resistance training

what are the general training priorities during off-season?

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41

medium sport practice, medium resistance training

what are the general training priorities during preseason?

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42

high sport practice, low resistance training

what are the general training priorities during in-season?

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43

restoring range of motion

what are the general training priorities during postseason?

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44

one or more large muscle areas, two or more primary joints, prioritized because of direct application to sport

what are characteristics of core exercises?

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45

smaller muscle areas, one primary joint, less important to improving sport performance

what are characteristics of assistance exercises

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46

structural exercise

what type of exercises emphasize loading the spine directly or indirectly (axially, anteriorly or posteriorly)?

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47

true

true or false

a front squat is an example of a direct structural exercise

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48

false (indirect)

true or false

a deadlift is an example of a direct structural exercise

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49

power exercises

what are exercises that are structural exercises that are performed very quickly or explosively?

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50

exercises that have a greater likelihood that there will be a positive transfer to the sport

what are sport-specific exercises?

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51

agonist

what muscle or muscle group is actively causing the movement?

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52

antagonist

what muscle or muscle group is passive and located on the opposite side of the limb?

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53

do not involve high stress, promote movement & restoration

what are characteristics of exercises used to promote recovery?

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54

false

true or false

training frequency is not influenced by the overall amount of physical stress

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55

HPA axis

what is stress caused by?

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56

false

true or false

athletes competing during low academic stress weeks are more likely to get injured

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57

power, other nonpower core, assistance

in what order should exercises be performed?

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58

fatigue inhibits the ability to learn new skills

why should power exercises be performed first in a training exercise?

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59

1-6

how many repetitions can demonstrate strength according to the repetition maximum continuum (RM)?

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60

1-5

how many repetitions can demonstrate power according to the repetition maximum continuum (RM)?

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61

6-12

how many repetitions can demonstrate hypertrophy according to the repetition maximum continuum (RM)?

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62

13+

how many repetitions can demonstrate muscular endurance according to the repetition maximum continuum (RM)?

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63

>95% 1RM, based only on core exercises

what load is utilized in strength training goals? are these applicable for all strength training?

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64

80-90% 1RM

what load is utilized in single-effort power training goals?

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65

75-85% 1RM

what load is utilized in multiple-effort power training goals?

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66

65-85% 1RM

what load is utilized in hypertrophy training goals?

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67

<65% 1RM

what load is utilized in muscular endurance?

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68

<6 reps, 2-6 sets

how many sets and repetitions are required for strength training?

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69

1-2 reps, 3-5 sets

how many sets and repetitions are required for single-effort power training?

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70

3-5 reps, 3-5 sets

how many sets and repetitions are required for multiple-effort power training?

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71

6-12 reps, 3-6 sets

how many sets and repetitions are required for hypertrophy training?

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72

>12 reps, 2-3 sets

how many sets and repetitions are required for muscular endurance training?

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73

2-5 min

how much rest is required during strength training?

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74

2-5 min

how much rest is required during single effort power training?

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75

2-5 min

how much rest is required during multiple effort power training?

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76

30-90 sec

how much rest is required during hypertrophy training?

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77

<30 sec

how much rest is required during muscular endurance training?

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78

30-60% 1RM

what load is usually used during traditional resistance exercises?

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79

untrained individuals or during first several months of training

when is single-set training appropriate?

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80

higher volumes, intermediate/advanced resistance-trained athletes

when is multiple-set training appropriate?

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81

training goal, relative load lifted, athlete’s training status

what determines the length of the rest period between sets and exercises?

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82

true

true or false

maximal or near-maximal loads require longer rest periods

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83

2-5 minutes (2-3 songs)

what are the guidelines for rest during strength and power training?

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84

alarm, resistance, exhaustion

what are the stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome?

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85

alarm phase

what phase of the GAS is the initial phase of training when stimulus is first recognized and performance generally decreases in response to fatigue?

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86

resistance phase

what phase of the GAS is the second phase in which adaptation occurs and the system is returned to baseline or elevated above baseline?

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87

supercompensation phase

what phase of the GAS is when the new level of performance capacity occurs in response to the adaptive response found in resistance phase?

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88

overtraining phase

what phase of the GAS occurs if the stressors are too high?

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89

preparatory period

what period of periodization is the initial period that is usually the longest and occurs during the off-season?

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90

establishing base level of conditioning to increase tolerance for more intense training

what is the major emphasis of the preparatory period?

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91

low to moderate intensity, high volumes

at what intensity and volumes are utilized during the hypertrophy/strength endurance phase in the preparatory period?

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92

high intensity, moderate to high volume

what intensity and volumes are utilized during the basic strength phase in the preparatory period?

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93

restoring range of motion and muscular balance

what is the goal of the anatomical adaptation phase during the preparatory period?

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94

preseason

what sport season is the first transition period aligned with?

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95

first transition period

what period is a linkage between the preparatory and competitive periods?

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96

elevation of strength and translation to power development

what is the goal of the first transition period?

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97

low to very high loads, low volumes

at what intensity and volume is the strength/power phase of the first transition period?

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98

very high to low intensity, very low volume

what intensity and volume is used for peaking during the competitive period?

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99

moderate to high intensity, moderate volumes

what intensity and volume is used for maintenance during the competitive period?

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100

second transition period

what period of periodization is between the competitive season and the next macrocycle’s preparatory period?

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