bio exam 3

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kingdom fungi

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112 Terms

1

kingdom fungi

molds, mildew, mushrooms and yeasts

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2

What is fungi’s cell wall made of?

Chitin

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3

one major difference between yeast and fungi

A. Yeast are multicellular, bacteria are unicellular

B. Bacteria are multicellular, yeast are unicellular

C. Yeast are eukaryotic, bacteria are prokaryotic

D. Yeast are prokaryotic, bacteria are eukaryotic

yeast are eukaryotic, bacteria are prokaryotic

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4

are fungi heterotrophic or autotrophic

heterotrophic, they get nutrients from dead organic matter or from living hosts.

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hypha

long, branching, filamentous structures (building blocks of the fungus)

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fruiting body

the reproductive structure, where spores are made

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mycelium

the vegetative part (non-reproductive), made of branching hyphae, often underground

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spore

a reproductive particle, usually a single cell, released by a fungus, algae, or a plant that may germinate into other organisms.

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a collection of branching filaments that form the main body of a multicellular fungus is….

mycelium

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10

how do fungi get food?

fungi obtain nutrients and chemical energy by digesting organic material in the environment (outside the fungus) and then absorbing the digested material.

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when you eat a mushroom, what part of the fungus are you consuming?

a reproductive structure

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12

fungi are important to ecosystems because they…

break down dead organic matter and return carbon to the atmosphere.

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13

which of the following are true about fungi

  1. Many fungi have both asexual and sexual life cycles.

  2. Fungi are heterotrophs.

  3. Fungi are autotrophs (make their own food).

  4. Fungi only reproduce asexually (e.g., via budding).

  5. Many fungi are decomposers.

1, 2 , 5

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14

why is it harder to develop anti fungal drugs than antibiotics or antiviral drugs?

human cells are much more similar to fungal cells than bacteria or viruses.

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15

Mycorrhiza mutualist relationship

  • between plant roots and fungi

  • mycorrhiza increase a plants water and nutrient uptake, especially phosphorus

  • the fungi gains carbohydrates (sugar) from the plant

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lichen

a living organism made up of at least one fungus and algae living in a mutualistic relationship

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lichen mutualistic relationship

  • the algae produce sugar through photosynthesis and the fungi provide support and mineral nutrient.

  • grows in colonies on tree trunks, rocks and fences, and have been found on all continents

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Obligate mutualism

can’t survive without the other.

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19

Plants were grown with and without mycorrhiza fungi at ambient (normal) and high CO2 conditions. What would describe these results?

Mycorrhiza increases plant growth rate under ambient and high CO2 conditions.

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20

Basidiomycota, a type of fungi and interacts with scale insects. The scale insects feed on plant sap. The fungal mycelium covers and protects the insect colonies. The scale insects gives extra plant sugars to the fungus. Based on this description, this fungus is a:

mutualist

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21

Basidiomycetes are the only fungal group that produces lignin peroxidases, which are chemicals that can break down lignin, the main structural molecule of wood. Based on this information, Basidiomycetes are most likely:

decomposers

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22

What is the specific role of cyanobacteria (or green algae) in lichens?

to provide fungi with carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis

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23

are plants autotrophs or heterotrophs?

autotrophs, they make their own food through photosynthesis

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24

plant cells

• Cell wall made of cellulose.

• Chloroplasts: Organelle for photosynthesis

• Chlorophyll: green pigment

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stem

provide support/ hold up the plant

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leaf

photosynthesis

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flower

Reproduction

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roots

uptake of water and mineral nutrients

Also used for storing sugar created from photosynthesis.

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fruit

protection and dissemination of the seed

the seed-bearing part of a plant, often edible, colorful, and fragrant, produced from the flower’s ovary after fertilization

Many of the foods we call vegetables are botanically fruits.

important for seed dispersal

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30

true or false- all plants have chloroplasts

false

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31

Most plant cells have a characteristic “square” shape because of their:

cell walls

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32

You are looking at a cell under a microscope. Which of the following would tell you that you’re looking at a fungal cell and not a plant cell?

A. The presence of mitochondria

B. The presence of a membrane bound nucleus.

C. The cell wall is made of chitin and chlorophyll is absent.

D. The cell wall is made of cellulose and chlorophyll is absent.

c. the cell wall is made of chitin and chlorophyl is absent

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33

Some plants increase their capacity to absorb water and mineral nutrients by

having mycorrhiza

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34

Plants bring in carbon dioxide through their ____________.

leaves

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35

bryophytes

Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

• Non-vascular – lack “veins” for transporting water, nutrients and sugar around the plant.

• Which is why they are low to the ground.

• Likely the first plants to evolve.

• Lack true leaves, stems, and roots (because these require vascular tissue).

• Moist habitats.

• Reproduce by spores.

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vascular plants

Ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms

These plants have tubes for moving water, minerals, and sugar around the plant.

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ferns

• Vascular plant = true roots, stems and leaves

• Reproduce by spores

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spores vs seeds

spores- • Single-celled

• Do not contain stored food resources

seeds- • Multicellular

• Contain stored food

• Seed coat (protection)

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gymnosperms

• Example: Pines, hemlocks, firs, spruces, cycads, gingkoes.

• Predominantly in temperate and arctic regions.

• Many are evergreen (don’t loose their leaves in the winter).

• Pine needles are leaves

- gymnosperms have cones

Gymnosperm means “naked seed”.

• Seeds develop on the scales of cones rather than in enclosed chambers.

• Wind pollination

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40

angiosperm

• Flowering plants

• Most diverse plant phylum

• Seeds are enclosed within the fruit

-Angiosperms produce fruit

-evolved special relationships with animals for pollination and seed dispersal.

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41

Which of the following are characteristics of gymnosperms?.

  1. Seeds

  2. Cones that produce pollen

  3. Vascular tissue for transporting water, nutrients, and sugar

  4. Lacks true leaves

1,2,3

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42

what best explains why trees are

much taller than mosses?

Trees have vascular tissue which can transport water, minerals, and nutrients up and around the plant.

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43

what is one difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms?

Angiosperms have fruits, gymnosperms do not.

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44

________________ are a web of hyphae produced by a fungus in response to encountering a food source.

mycelium

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45

pollination in angiosperms

In angiosperms, transferring pollen grains from anther to the stigma of the same flower (self-pollination) or different flower (cross-pollination).

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pollination in gymnosperms

In gymnosperms, transferring pollen from the male cone to the female cone.

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wind pollination

when pollen is moved by the wind from the anther of one plant to the stigma of another.

exposed anthers on long filaments

smooth light pollen

feathery, exposed stigma

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48

animal pollination

when animals carry pollen from anther to stigma. Mutualism. Plants benefit by reproducing. Animals benefit by receiving food (nectar, pollen).

sticky pollen

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49

how do animal pollinated plants draw attention

  • large, bright, showy flowers

  • nectar=sugar water

  • sents

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50

From a plant’s perspective why is a pollinating insect that visits one species of plant better than a pollinating insect that visits many plant species?

Pollination is more likely by a pollinating insect that only visits one plant species.

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51

fertilization

It occurs after pollen is deposited on the stigma. The pollen tube, containing sperm, grows down to the ovary. The fertilized ovule becomes the seed.

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52

The transport of pollen to the stigma is called:

pollination

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53

Put these steps in order:

A. Fertilization

B. Flower develops

C. Bee visits flower and picks up pollen.

D. Pollen tube grows down to ovary.

E. Bee visits another flower and deposits pollen on stigma.

F. Seed develops

b,c,e,d,a,f

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54

The pollen of angiosperms and gymnosperms and the spores of ferns are both transported by air. How do these structures differ?

Spores are unicellular, but pollen grains are multicellular.

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seed dispersal

the movement of seeds away from the parent plant.

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56

Both gymnosperms and angiosperms form seeds, which can travel over long distances. what is not a benefit of seed production and dispersal?

seeds can usually travel farther than spores

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germination

the sprouting of a seed or spore, usually after a state of dormancy, depends on favorable environmental conditions( moisture, light, temperature, etc.)

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pollen is produced by the…

anther/stamen

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a fruit is a mature…

ovary

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60

The ability of plants to wall off infections through the coordinated death of uninfected cells around infected cells provides a first line of defense against:

viruses, bacteria, and fungi

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61

At first glance, cycads (gymnosperms) and palm trees (angiosperms) look very similar. How are they different?

cycads have cones, palm trees have flowers

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62

A gardener applies a specific fungicide to her garden that kills all mycorrhizal fungi. Which of the following statements is true?

  1. If you measured levels of phosphorus in the soil before and after the fungicide application, you would expect soil phosphorus levels to increase over time.

  2. Plant growth rates would increase after the fungicide application.

1 only

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63

Which of the following is not a description of plant-animal mutualism?

  1. When a caterpillar eats a plant leaf, the plant releases volatile organic compounds which bring in parasitoid wasps that lay eggs in the caterpillar (eventually killing it).

  2. Bumblebees utilize buzz pollination to release pollen from flowers.

  3. Birds eat wild cherries and the seeds can pass, unharmed, through their digestive tract.

  4. Using visual cues and scents, orchids mimic female wasps to attract male wasps to their flowers.

  5. Hummingbirds drink nectar from long, tubular flowers. Their heads get dusted with pollen as they drink.

4 only

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64

Which domains contain prokaryotes?

archaea and bacteria

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65

If you were fishing for bream in Massachusetts you would likely hook Lepomis macrochirus. However, if you were fishing for bream in Europe you would be catching Abramis brama. What does this mean?

Two (or more) different species share the same common name.

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66

A Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, has a short tail with a black tip running all the way around the tail. It also has large tufts of hair on the ears. A bobcat, Lynx rufus, has a short tail with black only on the tip. It has small ear tufts. From this information you can conclude that:

The lynx and bobcat are in the same genus.

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67

What domain, kingdom, and phylum do mosses belong to?

Eukaryote, Plantae, Bryophyte

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68

What makes something an animal (and not a plant, fungi, or prokaryote)?

  • Eukaryotic

  • Multicellular

  • Heterotrophic (consumer)

  • Aerobic cellular respiration (therefore require oxygen)

  • Motile (can move at will)

  • Reproduce sexually (some can also have periods of asexual reproduction)

  • Most have specialized sensory organs

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animal cells

lack cell walls, no chloroplasts, always multicellular

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70

what would correctly compare fungal and animal?

Fungi digest and then absorb food, whereas animals ingest and then digest food.

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71

increasing oxygen and decreasing carbon dioxide inside the cell is…

a leaf cell, a cell that does photosynthesis

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decreasing oxygen levels and increasing carbon dioxide levels inside the cell is…

cellular respiration, any cell

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porferia

  • Sponges

  • Sessile (non-moving)

  • Filter feeders: No mouth or anus. Water is drawn in through pores.

  • Aquatic

  • asymmetric

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cnidaria

  • jellyfish, sea anemones, corals

  • Radial symmetry

  • Incomplete digestive system with only one opening

  • Lacks organs (no brains, heart, etc).

  • stinging cells called nematocysts that are along tentacles used for hunting and defense

  • Two body forms: polyp and medusa.

  • These two forms represent different stages in the life cycle.

  • Polyp: Sessile (stationary), asexual reproduction by budding.

  • Medusa: Floating, sexual reproduction.

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75

Animals in the phylum cnidaria have __________ symmetry, while porifera are _________.

radial, asymmetrical

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76

Which of the following statements is false about animals in the phyla Cnidaria?

  1. If you see a cnidarian floating in the ocean, you are most likely seeing the polyp form.

  2. Cnidarians have only one opening for food and waste.

  3. Cnidarians have tentacles that radiate outward from around the mouth.

  4. If you’ve ever been stung by a jellyfish (ouch!), it means you were in contact with nematocysts.

1 only

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echinodermata

  • Sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sand dollars

  • The name means “spiny skin”

  • Marine (ocean) animals

  • 5-sided radial symmetry as adults

  • Complete digestive system

  • have a water vascular system (water-filled tubes) for movement with tube feet. Hydraulic pressure (water pressure) system). Also used for gas exchange.

  • can regenerate (even when over 75% of their body mass is lost).

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78

Bilateral symmetry was an important evolutionary development because

  • It allowed for cephalization (making of a head).

  • It allowed for directed movement.

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79

mollusca

  • snails, clams, slugs, octopus, squid

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • May produce a shell

  • Complete digestive tract

  • Gills for gas exchange

  • have a specialized foot used for movement and grasping. Can be highly modified Octopi and squids have a muscular foot modified into tentacles

  • have a radula radula, a flexible tongue-like organ covered with teeth. Used for feeding

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80

arthropods

  • Insects, spiders, crabs, lobsters, shrimp

  • Name means “jointed foot” – arthropods have numerous jointed appendages

  • Segmented bodies (segmentation - the repetition of identical anatomical units)

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Complete digestive system

  • most diverse animal phyla

  • have a hard exoskeleton made of chitin, they must shed or molt the exoskeleton in order to grow.

  • 3 body sections: Head, thorax, abdomen (specialized segments within each section).

    • • Head: Responding to environment (eyes, antennae)

    • Thorax: Locomotion (legs and/or wings)

    • Abdomen: Reproduction

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Chordata (chordates)

  • Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish (also sea squirts and lancets both invertebrates).

  • All vertebrates (animals with backbones) , but not all members of this phyla are vertebrates.

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Complete digestive system

  • Notochord: a flexible, rod-like structure the runs along the upper (dorsal) side of the body. Develops into the spine in vertebrates.

  • Hollow, dorsal nerve tube. In vertebrates, the dorsal nerve cord develops into the brain and spinal cord.

  • Post-anal tail (may be embryonic).

  • most have a bony or cartilaginous endoskeleton

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82

You make a stir-fry that contains eggplant, string beans, green pepper. Because these all contain seeds, they are _______________.

fruits

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83

Why do the clownfish and crab want to be close to the sea anemone?

The sea anemone’s tentacles have nematocysts.

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84

circulatory system

transports gases (and nutrients, hormones, heat, waste, and immune cells) around the body.

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85

Which of the phyla, have circulatory systems with a heart?

  1. Porifera

  2. Cnidaria

  3. Echinodermata

  4. Mollusca

  5. Arthropoda

  6. Chordata

4,5,6

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open circulatory system

  • Hemolymph (blood-like liquid) is not fully contained in blood vessels.

  • Hemolymph mixes in body cavity.

  • Limited control of where hemolymph goes.

  • Simple hearts do some (very little) pumping.

  • Doesn’t require much energy.

  • Arthropods and most mollusks

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closed circulatory system

  • Hearts pumps blood through connected vessels.

  • Unidirectional (one direction) movement of blood.

  • Higher rate of O2 delivery to active muscles.

  • Energetically expensive.

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Most mollusks have an open circulatory system, but one group of mollusks have a closed circulatory system. Which mollusk has a closed circulatory system?

octopus

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components of the circulatory system

  • Blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins that deliver blood to all tissues

  • Blood or hemolymph: liquid and cells

  • Heart: a muscular pump to move the blood

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arteries

  • Carry blood from the heart to the body

  • Oxygenated blood (except for the pulmonary artery which carries blood from the heart to the lungs).

  • Thick walls and narrow lumens – to carry blood at high pressure. *lumen—the hollow inside of the blood vessel.

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veins

  • Carry blood back to the heart

  • Deoxygenated blood (except for the pulmonary vein which carries blood from the lungs to the heart).

  • Thin walls and wide lumens – to carry blood at low pressure.

  • Valves – to prevent backflow

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capillaries

  • Deliver blood to tissue / cells

  • Small

  • Walls are only a single cell thick to facilitate diffusion.

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93

true or false- Veins are blue because blood in veins is deoxygenated and deoxygenated blood is blue.

false, veins are blue because they are closer to the surface of the skin and reflect black/blue light

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94

List the following terms next to either the artery or vein: a) towards the heart

b) muscular, elastic vessels

c) valves

d) away from the heart

e) low pressure

f) high pressure

artery- b,d,f

vein- a,c,e

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95

Blood clots can form when blood doesn't flow properly. If blood pools in blood vessels, platelets are more likely to stick together. Research from the WHO (World Health Organization) showed that travelers who take long flights — more than four hours in length — face a two- to three-fold increase in the risk of developing a blood clot. These blood clots form deep inside the legs, so they're called "deep vein thromboses“ or DVTs. This can cause a pulmonary embolism if part of the blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs causing a blockage.

Why are DVT’s more likely on long flights than on short flights?

Because travelers are immobile for long periods of time, so blood pools in their veins.

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96

what can decrease your risk of developing DVTs on long flights?

Get up, move around, and stretch your legs regularly.

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97

components of human blood

Plasma - the liquid part of the blood (can also contain antibodies)

• White blood cells – immune system

• Red blood cells – carry oxygen

• Platelets - tiny cells that form clots to stop bleeding

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98

platelets

  • form blood clots

  • When an injury causes a blood vessel to break, platelets are activated.

  • They change shape, stick to the broken vessel wall and each other, and begin to plug the break.

  • The blood clot prevents further bleeding

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red blood cells

• Carry oxygen – using hemoglobin (vertebrates) Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrying molecule inhuman (and most vertebrate) red blood cells

• Binds reversibly

• Up to 4 O2 molecules per hemoglobin

• Contains iron

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100

The relatively clear liquid that carries the blood cells is called:

plasma

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