bio exam 3

studied byStudied by 0 people
get a hint

kingdom fungi

1 / 111

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

112 Terms


kingdom fungi

molds, mildew, mushrooms and yeasts

New cards

What is fungi’s cell wall made of?


New cards

one major difference between yeast and fungi

A. Yeast are multicellular, bacteria are unicellular

B. Bacteria are multicellular, yeast are unicellular

C. Yeast are eukaryotic, bacteria are prokaryotic

D. Yeast are prokaryotic, bacteria are eukaryotic

yeast are eukaryotic, bacteria are prokaryotic

New cards

are fungi heterotrophic or autotrophic

heterotrophic, they get nutrients from dead organic matter or from living hosts.

New cards


long, branching, filamentous structures (building blocks of the fungus)

New cards

fruiting body

the reproductive structure, where spores are made

New cards


the vegetative part (non-reproductive), made of branching hyphae, often underground

New cards


a reproductive particle, usually a single cell, released by a fungus, algae, or a plant that may germinate into other organisms.

New cards

a collection of branching filaments that form the main body of a multicellular fungus is….


New cards

how do fungi get food?

fungi obtain nutrients and chemical energy by digesting organic material in the environment (outside the fungus) and then absorbing the digested material.

New cards

when you eat a mushroom, what part of the fungus are you consuming?

a reproductive structure

New cards

fungi are important to ecosystems because they…

break down dead organic matter and return carbon to the atmosphere.

New cards

which of the following are true about fungi

  1. Many fungi have both asexual and sexual life cycles.

  2. Fungi are heterotrophs.

  3. Fungi are autotrophs (make their own food).

  4. Fungi only reproduce asexually (e.g., via budding).

  5. Many fungi are decomposers.

1, 2 , 5

New cards

why is it harder to develop anti fungal drugs than antibiotics or antiviral drugs?

human cells are much more similar to fungal cells than bacteria or viruses.

New cards

Mycorrhiza mutualist relationship

  • between plant roots and fungi

  • mycorrhiza increase a plants water and nutrient uptake, especially phosphorus

  • the fungi gains carbohydrates (sugar) from the plant

New cards


a living organism made up of at least one fungus and algae living in a mutualistic relationship

New cards

lichen mutualistic relationship

  • the algae produce sugar through photosynthesis and the fungi provide support and mineral nutrient.

  • grows in colonies on tree trunks, rocks and fences, and have been found on all continents

New cards

Obligate mutualism

can’t survive without the other.

New cards

Plants were grown with and without mycorrhiza fungi at ambient (normal) and high CO2 conditions. What would describe these results?

Mycorrhiza increases plant growth rate under ambient and high CO2 conditions.

New cards

Basidiomycota, a type of fungi and interacts with scale insects. The scale insects feed on plant sap. The fungal mycelium covers and protects the insect colonies. The scale insects gives extra plant sugars to the fungus. Based on this description, this fungus is a:


New cards

Basidiomycetes are the only fungal group that produces lignin peroxidases, which are chemicals that can break down lignin, the main structural molecule of wood. Based on this information, Basidiomycetes are most likely:


New cards

What is the specific role of cyanobacteria (or green algae) in lichens?

to provide fungi with carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis

New cards

are plants autotrophs or heterotrophs?

autotrophs, they make their own food through photosynthesis

New cards

plant cells

• Cell wall made of cellulose.

• Chloroplasts: Organelle for photosynthesis

• Chlorophyll: green pigment

New cards


provide support/ hold up the plant

New cards



New cards



New cards


uptake of water and mineral nutrients

Also used for storing sugar created from photosynthesis.

New cards


protection and dissemination of the seed

the seed-bearing part of a plant, often edible, colorful, and fragrant, produced from the flower’s ovary after fertilization

Many of the foods we call vegetables are botanically fruits.

important for seed dispersal

New cards

true or false- all plants have chloroplasts


New cards

Most plant cells have a characteristic “square” shape because of their:

cell walls

New cards

You are looking at a cell under a microscope. Which of the following would tell you that you’re looking at a fungal cell and not a plant cell?

A. The presence of mitochondria

B. The presence of a membrane bound nucleus.

C. The cell wall is made of chitin and chlorophyll is absent.

D. The cell wall is made of cellulose and chlorophyll is absent.

c. the cell wall is made of chitin and chlorophyl is absent

New cards

Some plants increase their capacity to absorb water and mineral nutrients by

having mycorrhiza

New cards

Plants bring in carbon dioxide through their ____________.


New cards


Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

• Non-vascular – lack “veins” for transporting water, nutrients and sugar around the plant.

• Which is why they are low to the ground.

• Likely the first plants to evolve.

• Lack true leaves, stems, and roots (because these require vascular tissue).

• Moist habitats.

• Reproduce by spores.

New cards

vascular plants

Ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms

These plants have tubes for moving water, minerals, and sugar around the plant.

New cards


• Vascular plant = true roots, stems and leaves

• Reproduce by spores

New cards

spores vs seeds

spores- • Single-celled

• Do not contain stored food resources

seeds- • Multicellular

• Contain stored food

• Seed coat (protection)

New cards


• Example: Pines, hemlocks, firs, spruces, cycads, gingkoes.

• Predominantly in temperate and arctic regions.

• Many are evergreen (don’t loose their leaves in the winter).

• Pine needles are leaves

- gymnosperms have cones

Gymnosperm means “naked seed”.

• Seeds develop on the scales of cones rather than in enclosed chambers.

• Wind pollination

New cards


• Flowering plants

• Most diverse plant phylum

• Seeds are enclosed within the fruit

-Angiosperms produce fruit

-evolved special relationships with animals for pollination and seed dispersal.

New cards

Which of the following are characteristics of gymnosperms?.

  1. Seeds

  2. Cones that produce pollen

  3. Vascular tissue for transporting water, nutrients, and sugar

  4. Lacks true leaves


New cards

what best explains why trees are

much taller than mosses?

Trees have vascular tissue which can transport water, minerals, and nutrients up and around the plant.

New cards

what is one difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms?

Angiosperms have fruits, gymnosperms do not.

New cards

________________ are a web of hyphae produced by a fungus in response to encountering a food source.


New cards

pollination in angiosperms

In angiosperms, transferring pollen grains from anther to the stigma of the same flower (self-pollination) or different flower (cross-pollination).

New cards

pollination in gymnosperms

In gymnosperms, transferring pollen from the male cone to the female cone.

New cards

wind pollination

when pollen is moved by the wind from the anther of one plant to the stigma of another.

exposed anthers on long filaments

smooth light pollen

feathery, exposed stigma

New cards

animal pollination

when animals carry pollen from anther to stigma. Mutualism. Plants benefit by reproducing. Animals benefit by receiving food (nectar, pollen).

sticky pollen

New cards

how do animal pollinated plants draw attention

  • large, bright, showy flowers

  • nectar=sugar water

  • sents

New cards

From a plant’s perspective why is a pollinating insect that visits one species of plant better than a pollinating insect that visits many plant species?

Pollination is more likely by a pollinating insect that only visits one plant species.

New cards


It occurs after pollen is deposited on the stigma. The pollen tube, containing sperm, grows down to the ovary. The fertilized ovule becomes the seed.

New cards

The transport of pollen to the stigma is called:


New cards

Put these steps in order:

A. Fertilization

B. Flower develops

C. Bee visits flower and picks up pollen.

D. Pollen tube grows down to ovary.

E. Bee visits another flower and deposits pollen on stigma.

F. Seed develops


New cards

The pollen of angiosperms and gymnosperms and the spores of ferns are both transported by air. How do these structures differ?

Spores are unicellular, but pollen grains are multicellular.

New cards

seed dispersal

the movement of seeds away from the parent plant.

New cards

Both gymnosperms and angiosperms form seeds, which can travel over long distances. what is not a benefit of seed production and dispersal?

seeds can usually travel farther than spores

New cards


the sprouting of a seed or spore, usually after a state of dormancy, depends on favorable environmental conditions( moisture, light, temperature, etc.)

New cards

pollen is produced by the…


New cards

a fruit is a mature…


New cards

The ability of plants to wall off infections through the coordinated death of uninfected cells around infected cells provides a first line of defense against:

viruses, bacteria, and fungi

New cards

At first glance, cycads (gymnosperms) and palm trees (angiosperms) look very similar. How are they different?

cycads have cones, palm trees have flowers

New cards

A gardener applies a specific fungicide to her garden that kills all mycorrhizal fungi. Which of the following statements is true?

  1. If you measured levels of phosphorus in the soil before and after the fungicide application, you would expect soil phosphorus levels to increase over time.

  2. Plant growth rates would increase after the fungicide application.

1 only

New cards

Which of the following is not a description of plant-animal mutualism?

  1. When a caterpillar eats a plant leaf, the plant releases volatile organic compounds which bring in parasitoid wasps that lay eggs in the caterpillar (eventually killing it).

  2. Bumblebees utilize buzz pollination to release pollen from flowers.

  3. Birds eat wild cherries and the seeds can pass, unharmed, through their digestive tract.

  4. Using visual cues and scents, orchids mimic female wasps to attract male wasps to their flowers.

  5. Hummingbirds drink nectar from long, tubular flowers. Their heads get dusted with pollen as they drink.

4 only

New cards

Which domains contain prokaryotes?

archaea and bacteria

New cards

If you were fishing for bream in Massachusetts you would likely hook Lepomis macrochirus. However, if you were fishing for bream in Europe you would be catching Abramis brama. What does this mean?

Two (or more) different species share the same common name.

New cards

A Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, has a short tail with a black tip running all the way around the tail. It also has large tufts of hair on the ears. A bobcat, Lynx rufus, has a short tail with black only on the tip. It has small ear tufts. From this information you can conclude that:

The lynx and bobcat are in the same genus.

New cards

What domain, kingdom, and phylum do mosses belong to?

Eukaryote, Plantae, Bryophyte

New cards

What makes something an animal (and not a plant, fungi, or prokaryote)?

  • Eukaryotic

  • Multicellular

  • Heterotrophic (consumer)

  • Aerobic cellular respiration (therefore require oxygen)

  • Motile (can move at will)

  • Reproduce sexually (some can also have periods of asexual reproduction)

  • Most have specialized sensory organs

New cards

animal cells

lack cell walls, no chloroplasts, always multicellular

New cards

what would correctly compare fungal and animal?

Fungi digest and then absorb food, whereas animals ingest and then digest food.

New cards

increasing oxygen and decreasing carbon dioxide inside the cell is…

a leaf cell, a cell that does photosynthesis

New cards

decreasing oxygen levels and increasing carbon dioxide levels inside the cell is…

cellular respiration, any cell

New cards


  • Sponges

  • Sessile (non-moving)

  • Filter feeders: No mouth or anus. Water is drawn in through pores.

  • Aquatic

  • asymmetric

New cards


  • jellyfish, sea anemones, corals

  • Radial symmetry

  • Incomplete digestive system with only one opening

  • Lacks organs (no brains, heart, etc).

  • stinging cells called nematocysts that are along tentacles used for hunting and defense

  • Two body forms: polyp and medusa.

  • These two forms represent different stages in the life cycle.

  • Polyp: Sessile (stationary), asexual reproduction by budding.

  • Medusa: Floating, sexual reproduction.

New cards

Animals in the phylum cnidaria have __________ symmetry, while porifera are _________.

radial, asymmetrical

New cards

Which of the following statements is false about animals in the phyla Cnidaria?

  1. If you see a cnidarian floating in the ocean, you are most likely seeing the polyp form.

  2. Cnidarians have only one opening for food and waste.

  3. Cnidarians have tentacles that radiate outward from around the mouth.

  4. If you’ve ever been stung by a jellyfish (ouch!), it means you were in contact with nematocysts.

1 only

New cards


  • Sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sand dollars

  • The name means “spiny skin”

  • Marine (ocean) animals

  • 5-sided radial symmetry as adults

  • Complete digestive system

  • have a water vascular system (water-filled tubes) for movement with tube feet. Hydraulic pressure (water pressure) system). Also used for gas exchange.

  • can regenerate (even when over 75% of their body mass is lost).

New cards

Bilateral symmetry was an important evolutionary development because

  • It allowed for cephalization (making of a head).

  • It allowed for directed movement.

New cards


  • snails, clams, slugs, octopus, squid

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • May produce a shell

  • Complete digestive tract

  • Gills for gas exchange

  • have a specialized foot used for movement and grasping. Can be highly modified Octopi and squids have a muscular foot modified into tentacles

  • have a radula radula, a flexible tongue-like organ covered with teeth. Used for feeding

New cards


  • Insects, spiders, crabs, lobsters, shrimp

  • Name means “jointed foot” – arthropods have numerous jointed appendages

  • Segmented bodies (segmentation - the repetition of identical anatomical units)

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Complete digestive system

  • most diverse animal phyla

  • have a hard exoskeleton made of chitin, they must shed or molt the exoskeleton in order to grow.

  • 3 body sections: Head, thorax, abdomen (specialized segments within each section).

    • • Head: Responding to environment (eyes, antennae)

    • Thorax: Locomotion (legs and/or wings)

    • Abdomen: Reproduction

New cards

Chordata (chordates)

  • Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish (also sea squirts and lancets both invertebrates).

  • All vertebrates (animals with backbones) , but not all members of this phyla are vertebrates.

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Complete digestive system

  • Notochord: a flexible, rod-like structure the runs along the upper (dorsal) side of the body. Develops into the spine in vertebrates.

  • Hollow, dorsal nerve tube. In vertebrates, the dorsal nerve cord develops into the brain and spinal cord.

  • Post-anal tail (may be embryonic).

  • most have a bony or cartilaginous endoskeleton

New cards

You make a stir-fry that contains eggplant, string beans, green pepper. Because these all contain seeds, they are _______________.


New cards

Why do the clownfish and crab want to be close to the sea anemone?

The sea anemone’s tentacles have nematocysts.

New cards

circulatory system

transports gases (and nutrients, hormones, heat, waste, and immune cells) around the body.

New cards

Which of the phyla, have circulatory systems with a heart?

  1. Porifera

  2. Cnidaria

  3. Echinodermata

  4. Mollusca

  5. Arthropoda

  6. Chordata


New cards

open circulatory system

  • Hemolymph (blood-like liquid) is not fully contained in blood vessels.

  • Hemolymph mixes in body cavity.

  • Limited control of where hemolymph goes.

  • Simple hearts do some (very little) pumping.

  • Doesn’t require much energy.

  • Arthropods and most mollusks

New cards

closed circulatory system

  • Hearts pumps blood through connected vessels.

  • Unidirectional (one direction) movement of blood.

  • Higher rate of O2 delivery to active muscles.

  • Energetically expensive.

New cards

Most mollusks have an open circulatory system, but one group of mollusks have a closed circulatory system. Which mollusk has a closed circulatory system?


New cards

components of the circulatory system

  • Blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins that deliver blood to all tissues

  • Blood or hemolymph: liquid and cells

  • Heart: a muscular pump to move the blood

New cards


  • Carry blood from the heart to the body

  • Oxygenated blood (except for the pulmonary artery which carries blood from the heart to the lungs).

  • Thick walls and narrow lumens – to carry blood at high pressure. *lumen—the hollow inside of the blood vessel.

New cards


  • Carry blood back to the heart

  • Deoxygenated blood (except for the pulmonary vein which carries blood from the lungs to the heart).

  • Thin walls and wide lumens – to carry blood at low pressure.

  • Valves – to prevent backflow

New cards


  • Deliver blood to tissue / cells

  • Small

  • Walls are only a single cell thick to facilitate diffusion.

New cards

true or false- Veins are blue because blood in veins is deoxygenated and deoxygenated blood is blue.

false, veins are blue because they are closer to the surface of the skin and reflect black/blue light

New cards

List the following terms next to either the artery or vein: a) towards the heart

b) muscular, elastic vessels

c) valves

d) away from the heart

e) low pressure

f) high pressure

artery- b,d,f

vein- a,c,e

New cards

Blood clots can form when blood doesn't flow properly. If blood pools in blood vessels, platelets are more likely to stick together. Research from the WHO (World Health Organization) showed that travelers who take long flights — more than four hours in length — face a two- to three-fold increase in the risk of developing a blood clot. These blood clots form deep inside the legs, so they're called "deep vein thromboses“ or DVTs. This can cause a pulmonary embolism if part of the blood clot breaks off and travels to the lungs causing a blockage.

Why are DVT’s more likely on long flights than on short flights?

Because travelers are immobile for long periods of time, so blood pools in their veins.

New cards

what can decrease your risk of developing DVTs on long flights?

Get up, move around, and stretch your legs regularly.

New cards

components of human blood

Plasma - the liquid part of the blood (can also contain antibodies)

• White blood cells – immune system

• Red blood cells – carry oxygen

• Platelets - tiny cells that form clots to stop bleeding

New cards


  • form blood clots

  • When an injury causes a blood vessel to break, platelets are activated.

  • They change shape, stick to the broken vessel wall and each other, and begin to plug the break.

  • The blood clot prevents further bleeding

New cards

red blood cells

• Carry oxygen – using hemoglobin (vertebrates) Hemoglobin is the oxygen carrying molecule inhuman (and most vertebrate) red blood cells

• Binds reversibly

• Up to 4 O2 molecules per hemoglobin

• Contains iron

New cards

The relatively clear liquid that carries the blood cells is called:


New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 160 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 126 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 76 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 181234 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(731)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 70 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard177 terms
studied byStudied by 77 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard81 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 142 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard85 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard203 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 137 people
Updated ... ago
3.8 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard78 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)