AP Human Geography Unit 5

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agriculture

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134 Terms
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agriculture

the purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber

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subsistence agriculture

level of farming in which a person raises only enough food to feed his or her family

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plant domestication

altering the behaviors, size and genetics of plants to benefit humans

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First Agricultural Revolution

The period roughly 10,000 years ago during which humans first began domesticating crops and animals

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terrace farming

cutting of "steps" into the mountains that allowed for more agriculture

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irrigation

a system that supplies dry land with water through ditches, pipes, or streams

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carrying capacity

the largest population that an environment can support at any given time

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slash-and-burn

a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land

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swidden

Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method.

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deforestation

the loss or destruction of forests, mainly for logging or farming

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desertification

lower land productivity caused by overfarming, overgrazing, seasonal drought, and climate change

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Enclosure Act

Laws passed by Parliament "closing off" common lands to small farmers

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barbed wire

used for fencing and invented to keep cattle from trampling crops

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Third Agricultural Revolution

20th century; tractor; monoculture; irrigation; petroleum; Agro-Biotechnology; GMOs

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Green Revolution

Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.

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GMOs

Crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods

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pastoral nomadism

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.

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ranching

a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area

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shifting cultivation

farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields they cultivate

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plantation

an estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale (especially in tropical areas)

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truck farming

Commercial gardening and fruit farming in the United States

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milk shed

the circle around a dairy farm in which its products can be sold without spoiling

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winter wheat

Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, a crop planted in fall and develops strong roots to survive the winter

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spring wheat

a wheat crop that is planted in the spring and harvested in late summer

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Mediterranean Agriculture

Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails

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dairy

relating to milk or products made using milk

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extensive farming

Where small amounts of capital and labour are used in relation to the amount of land being farmed

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double-cropping

to plant and harvest on the same parcel of land twice per year

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intercropping

also known as multicropping, farmers grow two or more crops simultaneously on the same field

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supply chain

a sequence of activities and organizations involved in producing and delivering a good or service

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commodity chain

the hands an item passes through between producer and consumer

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monoculture

farming strategy of planting a single, highly productive crop year after year

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suitcase farm

when someone owns and operates a farm, but lives somewhere else; usually a crops only farm

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cool chains

the refrigeration and transport technologies that allow for the distribution of perishables

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luxury crops

Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco

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neocolonialism

the continuation, in a former colony, of colonial exploitation without formal political control

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fair trade movement

trade in which fair prices are paid to producers in developing countries

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subsidy

a government payment that supports a business or market

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infrastructure

the basic facilities that are necessary for a society to function and grow - roads, government buildings, electricity lines, railroads

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clustered settlement

houses are grouped together in tiny clusters or hamlets

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dispersed settlements

A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.

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metes and bounds

natural features are used to mark irregular parcels of land

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township

a subdivision of a county that has its own government

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section

a square normally 1 mile on a side

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French long-lot system

Linear settlements stretched out along a road or river.

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von Thunen model

an agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activities in terms of rent

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isotropic

Having the same physical properties in all directions. - usually a flat, featureless plain

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horticulture

Gardening - cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes

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the cultivation of plants for subsistence through non-intensive use of land and labor

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bid rent theory

refers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD/Market increase

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comparative advantage

the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer

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greenbelt

a belt of parks or rural land surrounding a town or city

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organic food

a type of food that is produced without pesticides, bioengineering, or high-energy radiation

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aquaculture

Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages

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Blue Revolution

modern aquaculture, producing fish, shellfish, and other products

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biodiversity

the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)

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overgrazing

the depletion of vegetation due to the continuous feeding of too many animals

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economies of scale

the property whereby long-run average total cost falls as the quantity of output increases

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Adaptive strategies

the unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life--- food, clothing, shelter, and defense.

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Agrarian

characteristic of farmers or their way of life

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Agribusiness

highly mechanized, large-scale farming, usually under corporate ownership

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Agricultural industrialization

use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors

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Agricultural landscape

the cultural landscape of agricultural areas

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Agricultural origins

Fertile crescent - originated in the hearths of humanity

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Animal domestication

animals kept for some utilitarian purpose whose breeding is controlled by humans and whose survival is dependent on humans; differ genetically and behaviorally from wild animals

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Aquaculture

the cultivation of aquatic organisms (as fish or shellfish) especially for food

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Bio-revolution

the rapid transformation, or evolution, into post-humanism

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Biotechnology

means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use

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Collective farm

regards a system of agricultural organization whereas farm laborers are not compensated via wages. Rather, the workers receive a share of the farm's net productivity

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Commercial agriculture

term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology

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Intensive

expenditure of much labor and capital on a piece of land to increase its productivity

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Core/Periphery

As one region or state expands in economic prosperity, it must engulf regions nearby to ensure ongoing economic and political success

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Crop rotation

the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil

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Cultivation regions

the regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place

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Dairying

raising female cattle, goats, or certain other lactating livestock for long-term production of milk

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Debt-for-nature swap

In a debt for nature swap, creditors agree to forgive debts in return for the promise of environmental protection; attempt to solve two problems with one agreement: 1) minimize the negative effect debt has on developing nations 2) minimize the environmental destruction that developing nations frequently cause

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Diffusion

the spread of an idea from one area to another

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Double cropping

a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested

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Primary activity

the extraction of natural resources, such as agriculture, lumbering, and mining

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Secondary activity

the processing of raw materials into finished products; manufacturing

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Tertiary activity

transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs

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Quarternary Activity

collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital

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Quinary Activity

high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill

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Environmental modification

changes made to the environment

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Pesticides

toxic substances released to kill living things

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Soil erosion

the wearing away of a fields topsoil by water or the environment

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Desertification

the process of land becoming similar to that of a desert

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Extensive subsistence agriculture

the use of a lot of labor usually on a small plot of land

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Shifting cultivation

cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. the clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forest land

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Slash-and-burn

the process of cutting down all vegetation and burning it to grow crops. Usually used in tropical areas in shifting cultivation

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Swidden

patch of land cleared for planting thorough slashing and burning

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Nomadic

continual movement, often rotating livestock

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Herding/pastoralism

continual movement of livestock in search of forage for animals

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Extractive industry

industries involved in the activities of: prospecting and exploring for a nonrenewable resource, getting them, further exploring them, developing them, or extracting them from the earth

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Farm crisis

mass production of farm products that lowers the prices, which lowers the profits for farmers

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Farming

the process of growing crops and raising livestock

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Feedlot

factory like farm devoted to either livestock fattening or dairying; all feed is imported and no crops are grown on the farm

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Food chain

the feeding relationships between species in a biotic community

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Forestry

the art, science, and practice of studying and managing forests and plantations

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Globalized agriculture

consumer driven agriculture integrated on an international scale

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