AP Human Geography Unit 5

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

agriculture

1 / 133

134 Terms

1

agriculture

the purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber

New cards
2

subsistence agriculture

level of farming in which a person raises only enough food to feed his or her family

New cards
3

plant domestication

altering the behaviors, size and genetics of plants to benefit humans

New cards
4

First Agricultural Revolution

The period roughly 10,000 years ago during which humans first began domesticating crops and animals

New cards
5

terrace farming

cutting of "steps" into the mountains that allowed for more agriculture

New cards
6

irrigation

a system that supplies dry land with water through ditches, pipes, or streams

New cards
7

carrying capacity

the largest population that an environment can support at any given time

New cards
8

slash-and-burn

a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land

New cards
9

swidden

Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method.

New cards
10

deforestation

the loss or destruction of forests, mainly for logging or farming

New cards
11

desertification

lower land productivity caused by overfarming, overgrazing, seasonal drought, and climate change

New cards
12

Enclosure Act

Laws passed by Parliament "closing off" common lands to small farmers

New cards
13

barbed wire

used for fencing and invented to keep cattle from trampling crops

New cards
14

Third Agricultural Revolution

20th century; tractor; monoculture; irrigation; petroleum; Agro-Biotechnology; GMOs

New cards
15

Green Revolution

Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.

New cards
16

GMOs

Crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods

New cards
17

pastoral nomadism

A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.

New cards
18

ranching

a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area

New cards
19

shifting cultivation

farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields they cultivate

New cards
20

plantation

an estate where cash crops are grown on a large scale (especially in tropical areas)

New cards
21

truck farming

Commercial gardening and fruit farming in the United States

New cards
22

milk shed

the circle around a dairy farm in which its products can be sold without spoiling

New cards
23

winter wheat

Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, a crop planted in fall and develops strong roots to survive the winter

New cards
24

spring wheat

a wheat crop that is planted in the spring and harvested in late summer

New cards
25

Mediterranean Agriculture

Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails

New cards
26

dairy

relating to milk or products made using milk

New cards
27

extensive farming

Where small amounts of capital and labour are used in relation to the amount of land being farmed

New cards
28

double-cropping

to plant and harvest on the same parcel of land twice per year

New cards
29

intercropping

also known as multicropping, farmers grow two or more crops simultaneously on the same field

New cards
30

supply chain

a sequence of activities and organizations involved in producing and delivering a good or service

New cards
31

commodity chain

the hands an item passes through between producer and consumer

New cards
32

monoculture

farming strategy of planting a single, highly productive crop year after year

New cards
33

suitcase farm

when someone owns and operates a farm, but lives somewhere else; usually a crops only farm

New cards
34

cool chains

the refrigeration and transport technologies that allow for the distribution of perishables

New cards
35

luxury crops

Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco

New cards
36

neocolonialism

the continuation, in a former colony, of colonial exploitation without formal political control

New cards
37

fair trade movement

trade in which fair prices are paid to producers in developing countries

New cards
38

subsidy

a government payment that supports a business or market

New cards
39

infrastructure

the basic facilities that are necessary for a society to function and grow - roads, government buildings, electricity lines, railroads

New cards
40

clustered settlement

houses are grouped together in tiny clusters or hamlets

New cards
41

dispersed settlements

A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.

New cards
42

metes and bounds

natural features are used to mark irregular parcels of land

New cards
43

township

a subdivision of a county that has its own government

New cards
44

section

a square normally 1 mile on a side

New cards
45

French long-lot system

Linear settlements stretched out along a road or river.

New cards
46

von Thunen model

an agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activities in terms of rent

New cards
47

isotropic

Having the same physical properties in all directions. - usually a flat, featureless plain

New cards
48

horticulture

Gardening - cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes

New cards
49

the cultivation of plants for subsistence through non-intensive use of land and labor

New cards
50

bid rent theory

refers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD/Market increase

New cards
51

comparative advantage

the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer

New cards
52

greenbelt

a belt of parks or rural land surrounding a town or city

New cards
53

organic food

a type of food that is produced without pesticides, bioengineering, or high-energy radiation

New cards
54

aquaculture

Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages

New cards
55

Blue Revolution

modern aquaculture, producing fish, shellfish, and other products

New cards
56

biodiversity

the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)

New cards
57

overgrazing

the depletion of vegetation due to the continuous feeding of too many animals

New cards
58

economies of scale

the property whereby long-run average total cost falls as the quantity of output increases

New cards
59

Adaptive strategies

the unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life--- food, clothing, shelter, and defense.

New cards
60

Agrarian

characteristic of farmers or their way of life

New cards
61

Agribusiness

highly mechanized, large-scale farming, usually under corporate ownership

New cards
62

Agricultural industrialization

use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors

New cards
63

Agricultural landscape

the cultural landscape of agricultural areas

New cards
64

Agricultural origins

Fertile crescent - originated in the hearths of humanity

New cards
65

Animal domestication

animals kept for some utilitarian purpose whose breeding is controlled by humans and whose survival is dependent on humans; differ genetically and behaviorally from wild animals

New cards
66

Aquaculture

the cultivation of aquatic organisms (as fish or shellfish) especially for food

New cards
67

Bio-revolution

the rapid transformation, or evolution, into post-humanism

New cards
68

Biotechnology

means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use

New cards
69

Collective farm

regards a system of agricultural organization whereas farm laborers are not compensated via wages. Rather, the workers receive a share of the farm's net productivity

New cards
70

Commercial agriculture

term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology

New cards
71

Intensive

expenditure of much labor and capital on a piece of land to increase its productivity

New cards
72

Core/Periphery

As one region or state expands in economic prosperity, it must engulf regions nearby to ensure ongoing economic and political success

New cards
73

Crop rotation

the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil

New cards
74

Cultivation regions

the regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place

New cards
75

Dairying

raising female cattle, goats, or certain other lactating livestock for long-term production of milk

New cards
76

Debt-for-nature swap

In a debt for nature swap, creditors agree to forgive debts in return for the promise of environmental protection; attempt to solve two problems with one agreement: 1) minimize the negative effect debt has on developing nations 2) minimize the environmental destruction that developing nations frequently cause

New cards
77

Diffusion

the spread of an idea from one area to another

New cards
78

Double cropping

a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested

New cards
79

Primary activity

the extraction of natural resources, such as agriculture, lumbering, and mining

New cards
80

Secondary activity

the processing of raw materials into finished products; manufacturing

New cards
81

Tertiary activity

transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs

New cards
82

Quarternary Activity

collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital

New cards
83

Quinary Activity

high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill

New cards
84

Environmental modification

changes made to the environment

New cards
85

Pesticides

toxic substances released to kill living things

New cards
86

Soil erosion

the wearing away of a fields topsoil by water or the environment

New cards
87

Desertification

the process of land becoming similar to that of a desert

New cards
88

Extensive subsistence agriculture

the use of a lot of labor usually on a small plot of land

New cards
89

Shifting cultivation

cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. the clearings are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forest land

New cards
90

Slash-and-burn

the process of cutting down all vegetation and burning it to grow crops. Usually used in tropical areas in shifting cultivation

New cards
91

Swidden

patch of land cleared for planting thorough slashing and burning

New cards
92

Nomadic

continual movement, often rotating livestock

New cards
93

Herding/pastoralism

continual movement of livestock in search of forage for animals

New cards
94

Extractive industry

industries involved in the activities of: prospecting and exploring for a nonrenewable resource, getting them, further exploring them, developing them, or extracting them from the earth

New cards
95

Farm crisis

mass production of farm products that lowers the prices, which lowers the profits for farmers

New cards
96

Farming

the process of growing crops and raising livestock

New cards
97

Feedlot

factory like farm devoted to either livestock fattening or dairying; all feed is imported and no crops are grown on the farm

New cards
98

Food chain

the feeding relationships between species in a biotic community

New cards
99

Forestry

the art, science, and practice of studying and managing forests and plantations

New cards
100

Globalized agriculture

consumer driven agriculture integrated on an international scale

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 650 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 150 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 83 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 45 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard143 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 52 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard273 terms
studied byStudied by 139 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)