Psych 403: Relationships and Business

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Relationship Deal-Makers

Traits that promote good relationships

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Extraversion and deak-makers

Socially active = means you meet more people and do more activities

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Agreeableness and deal-makers

easy to get along with, avoid disputes (conflicts), prevent and diffuse conflict

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Being liked is associated with being high on communal traits

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Communal traits

traits relevant to relating well to others

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Number of friends predicted by

extraversion, sociability, (low) shyness

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Success in relationships

Predicted by low negative emotionality, high positive emotionality, good self-control

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Picky people

less attracted to partners

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warm people

more attracted

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People more interested in partners

who are warm and extraverted

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Relationship Deal-Breakers

traits that prevent or undermine relationships

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More difficult to maintain healthy relationshsips

Introverts and disagreeable people

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How does untrustworthy impact relationships?

especially significant for sabotaging romantic relationships

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Dispositional contempt

people with high scores come across as Cold, arrogant, disagreeable, and are emotionally fragile and insecure

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Rejection sensitivity

people are overly reactive to any indication that their partner might be losing interest or will soon reject them

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What may cause someone with rejection sensitivity to end a relationship?

If someone feels their partner is losing feelings or someone takes too long to answer

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What do thoughts of being rejected lead?

to an anxious or panicked response

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Why might someone end a relationship?

End up rejecting the other person before they can be rejected

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Most people are normal

Normal range of personality traits.

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What does a normal range of traits mean?

No extremes of traits

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Who is most likely to get along?

Two normal people

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Who is less likely to get along?

two less normal people

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Why are two less normal people less likely to get along?

They are less agreeable and less well adjusted

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Mate selection and attraction

what one looks for in the opposite sex

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Mating strategies

how one handles hetersexual relationships

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What is mating all about?

producing offspring

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On average for attraction

males place higher value on physical attractiveness and prefer younger mates

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Why do males prefer younger mates?

mean more fertile and offspring more likely to survive

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What do females value more?

Females place higher on economic security and prefer older mates. Someone to take care of them and children

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What are both males and females attracted to?

wants the highest likelihood of healthy offspring who will survive and reproduce

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Female attractiveness

signals youth, physical health, and ability to have children

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Males attractiveness

want to signal that they can provide economic resources and ave appropriate attitudes to support a family

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Attraction is influenced by more than physical characteristics like

Liking and Perceptions of honesty

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Desired number of sexual partners and thoughts that the opposite sex is sexually interested

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Faithfulness to partners and selectivity of partners

males lower

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Desire for monogamous and stable relationships

males lower

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Males and families

having more children and not wasting time taking care of children who are not their own

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Females and families

find mate for economic security to provide for children

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Similarities

Once a stable relationship is formed, both have interests in maintaining it and people in steady dating relationships find opposite-sex strangers less attractive

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Males report they would be more upset at

sexual infidelity

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Women upset at

emotional infidelity

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However, 55% of males (vs 88% of females) think they would be more upset

by imagining their partner falling in love with someone else

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Males do not want

to support another male's child

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Females do not want

their partners to develop an emotional bond with another female and leave them to solo parent their children

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Sociosexuality

willingness to engage in sexual relatins in the absence of a serious relationships

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Who is higher in sociosexuality?

Males are generally higher than women

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High levels (less restricted) in sociosexuality

Especially interested in physical attractiveness and social prestige of potential partners

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High levels in sociosexuality are more common

in males high on the dark triad traits

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What are dark triad traits?

narcissism, psychopathy, and machiavellianis

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Low levels (more restricted) in sociosexuality

More interested in personal qualities and potential to be good parents

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Freud said that socialization

shapes the way that attraction and gratification are directed

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How are your experiences influenced by your experiences?

Possible for anyone to be attracted to anyone else.Also anything

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Homosexuality in the DSM

was listed as a mental disorder in the DSM until the 1970s

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Attachment theory

focus is on patterns of relationships with others that are consistently repeated with different partners throughout life

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Attachment is a trait

consistency of attachment styles has good empirical support

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What is the basis of love?

attachment

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Attachment and evolution

Humans evolved in a risky environment and feared being alone. Motivated the desire for protection from another person interested in the person's survival and well-being

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When is desire especially strong?

infancy and early childhood

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What does desire for protection lead to?

attachment

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Attachment

relationships with caregivers

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What are working models of others and working models of the self are based on?

childhood experiences

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What expectations are made during childhood?

Expectations about attachment relationships are developed

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Working models of others

For how the other person is expected to react

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Working model of the self

For how the self will feel and behave (how we respond)

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What do Children learn lessons from?

early experiences with adult caregivrers

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What do children learn about attachments?

conclude whether they are the kind of child attachment figures are likely to respond to in a helpful way

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Strange situation task

child is briefly separated from, and then reunited with the mother

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Anxious-ambivalent children

Caregivers' behaviors are inconsistent, hit or miss, or chaotic

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Anxious- ambivalent children when mother leaves

are watchful about the parent's presence and grow very upset when she disappears for even a few minutes

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In school with anxious-ambivalent children

they're often victimized by other children and unsuccessfully attempt to cling to teachers and peers

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What does anxious-ambivalent leads to?

further hurt feelings, anger, and insecurity

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Anxious-ambivalent adults

they tend to cling to others and this drives others away

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Anxious-ambivalent traits

Extreme jealousy, high rates of relationship instability and failure, low self-esteem, highly emotional under stress

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Jealousy

fearing that you will lose that person

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Avoidant children

Caregivers dislike bodily contact (hugs) and push the child away when they attempt to initiate contact or seek reassurance. Tend to be emotionally unavailable and unresponsive

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Avoidant children when mother leaves

do not appear distressed, but their heart rate reveals tension and anxiety

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What happens when mother comes back for avoidant children?

When mother returns they tend to be distant and ignore her

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In school avoidant children

are hostile and deviant. Alienate teachers and peers

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As avoidant adults

they tend to be cold and distant from others

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Secure children

Have a confident faith in self and caregivers. Parents are emotionally available, reassuring, and consistent

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Secure children when mother returns

they greet her happily with open arms. Easily soothed when upset, and comfortably explore their environment, returning to caregiver for reassurance

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As secure adults

they tend to be secure and confident in their relationships

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Insecure attachment styles

both anxious-ambivalent and avoidant

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Insecure children

are less able to control impulses and modulate their emotions

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Insecure Adults

are more likely to have relationship problems that lead to substance us

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Self fulfilling nature

attachment styles affect outcomes throughout life

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Even people with secure attachments can have relationship problems

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People with low attachment anxiety/secure attachments

have a large decrease in relationship satisfaction over time if they have high fluctuations in feelings of attachment, and are as unsatisfied as people with high attachment anxiety

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two dimensions of attachment

anxiety and avoidance

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People low in both dimensions

are securely attached

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People high in the dimensions

anxiety and avoidance do not pay attention to signs of emotion from others

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What traits do employers want?

Conscientiousness, integrity, trustworthiness

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What trait is most closely associated with success?

conscientiousness (most closely associated with success)

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How do Employees align with their company?

to promote organization's goals

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Use to alleviate bias in testing

Test of conscientiousness or integrity typically do not have racial or ethnic differences

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How are people that are more conscientious more likely to get promoted and do well in interviews?

because they have sought more information and are better prepared

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Human capital formation

development of knowledge and skills

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Motivate others through persuasion, counseling, and suggestion

these tactics are more effective then commands, criticisms, and coercion

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Predictors of management performance

emotional stability (the strongest), conscientiousness, extraversion, openness

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Dark triad leadership styles

selfish, impulsive, exploitative, and toxic

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