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Clouds near the equator move which direction?
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East to west
Clouds in the higher latitudes move which direction?
West to east
What is the main determiner of how much solar radiation the ground receives
The angle of ground relative to the angle of incoming rays (Cosine Law)
What is the cosine law
What is the equinox
When the equator gets the most direct sun so both the northern and southern hemispheres get equal light
what two things related to the sun are highly affected by latitude?
Day length and seasonality
What is the Coriolis effect
the movement of the Earth rotating while the air rotates around
the area on the ground where the two Hadley cells come together
Wind patterns within the Hadley cells that are very reliable
30 to 60 N and S
When the north pole is tilted towards the sun what season is it in the southern hemisphere?
Near the equator it is:
Very hot and not very seasonable
In the mid latitudes it is:
seasonal in temperature and daylength, especially away from oceans
Near the poles it is:
extremely cold and seasonal
Rising air at the convergence cools and sheds ____ as it rises
\n The descending air \n to the N & S of the Hadley cells heats as it descends, this means \n ____
Tropical rain forest dominates near the ______
Desert dominates in the latitudes of the _______
descending limbs of the Hadley cells
Biomes of mid-latitudes include:
Deciduous forests, prairies, chaparral, southern \n taiga
Biomes of high latitudes include:
Taiga (boreal forest) and Tundra
What is the adiabatic lapse rate
1°C for every 100 meters of increased elevation
What are the ways to make rain?
Mountains, frontal systems, local convection, and tropical convergance
what is a side effect of the mountain way to make rain?
Rain shadows which usually create deserts
Frontal systems are an example of what feedback loop?
A positive feedback loop
How is rain made?
Rain is made by moving moist air upwards until it cools to the dewpoint, and water vapor begins to condense
What vegetation are tropical rainforests dominated by?
Broad leaf evergreens
What is the term for plants growing on plants?
What is the dominant vegetation of tropical seasonal forests?
dry deciduous broad leafs
There ___ clear lines between biomes
What is the dominant vegetation of tropical savanna and grasslands?
mixture of trees and grasses, grasslands have mostly grass while savannas have occasional drought resistent trees
Why is grass so important to grasslands and savannas?
Grass supports a high biomass of large area grazers since 2/3rds of it is below ground and it is edible.
The Serengeti savanna is threatened by wildfire ____
A desert is defined when:
potential evapotranspiration far exceeds rainfall for most of the year
What are the ways that there are deserts?
In the spot between the hadley and ferrel cells, and rain shadows
Why is the broadleaf sclerophyll/chaparral considered its own biome?
It has unique vegetation dominated by drought resistent shrubs and has a high population of people living in it
emperate grassland/prairie is largely maintained by what?
What vegetation dominated temperate decidious forests?
What are spring ephemerals characterized by
Completing most of their growth in a brief period of spring and remaining dormant as seeds for the rest of the year
Temperate rainforests are characterized as:
Wet maritime climate with the tallest trees
Boreal forests or tiaga are often called the moose, spruce biome, why?
Moose and spruce are abundant throughout the biome yet are not directly part of each others food chains, moose prefer broadleaf trees and shrubs that come from disturbed lands
Why do trees in the boreal forest or tiaga have a monopodial shape rather than an umbrella?
Monopodial is more vertical which catches more of the suns rays that are towards the horizon versus above them
a layer of soil a short distance below the surface that is frozen all the time
Why does surface matter in terms of water on earth?
because most ecosystems run on solar energy arriving at the earth’s surface
Freshwater is important to us but very _____
water has a very high specific heat, what does this mean?
it takes a lot of E loss or gain to change water temperature
What do you need to be an endotherm in water?
Be big with a lower surface area to volume ratio or come out of the water periodically
Diffusion is ____ in water vs air
Gas exchange in water is much quicker when the water is _____
Why are Sessile algae and animals are often most abundant in the moving water of rivers and shorelines
Because the moving water speeds up the uptake of CO2 and nutrients
What are the main limitations in water?
nutrients and light
Marine ecosystems are more productive _____
near land because more nutrient rich currents come to the surface and light is more available
There is ____ more saltwater than freshwater
A continental shelf:
has basically the same bedrock as continental rock, and is confined to the immediate edges of the continents
The deep sea floor:
has dark bedrock made of the basaltic geologically distinct ocean floor and does not have many nutrients
On or near bottom (earth)
Surface palagic is
near the surface and primary production (photosynthesis) will be limited by nutrients
Deep palagic is
limited by light, since there is no local primary productivity
Shallow Benthic are genrally
rich and productive
Deep Benthic is also called the
Deep benthic is limited by
light and nutrient “rain”
What is unique about mid-ocean ridges?
There is no sunlight but they host an entire productive ecosystem based on sulfur bacteria living off the mineral-laden hot water coming up from vents in the ocean floor
Mid-ocean ridges often have _______ concentrations of life
The energy running the biosphere is ultimately
Solar energy captured by photosynthesis
How do bacteria support life in mid-ocean ridges
capturing chemical energy by oxidizing the sulfides (H2S, \n FeS, etc.) through chemiosis
The energy running the mid-ocean ridge community ______ captured by photosynthesis
Bacteria in mid-ocean vents make their living by ______ which means they need what provided from what process?
Oxidizing, oxygen, provided by photosynthesis
As energy flows through the Earth it is _______
degraded (made less concentrated)
What type of system is the Earth in terms of energy?
an open system
The energy leaving the earth is less concentrated, and therefore what?
Less able to do work
A single photon of visible light has roughly how much of the energy of a single photon of infrared?
The Earth is what type of system in regards to matter? This means what?
A closed system which means matter doesn’t enter or leave in significant amounts
Has Earth always been a closed system in terms of matter?
No, 4.6 billion years ago during the hadean period asteriod strikes were common
matter and energy movements are what?
Couples (or paired)
is a basic concept that gets used a lot in ecosystem ecology and other areas of science that is a dimensionless number that can be expressed as a proportion
Of the solar energy that hits a leaf how much of it is captured by phtosynthesis?
Efficiency of photosynthesis =
E captured by photosynthesis / E hitting the leaf = ~ 0.05
primary productivity is:
Solar energy captured by photosynthesis in plants
What are the units of primary production
biomass (dry g/m^2/year) or energy (joules)
What is NPP
Net primary productivity (NPP) is GPP minus plant respiration (proportional to total accumulated plant matter \n produced)
What is the NPP of tropical rainforests
What is the NPP of temperate grasslands
What is the NPP of deserts
What is the NPP of marshes and coral reefs
2000 to 2500 g/m2/year