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Which of the following best describes the Black response to the ending of the Civil War and the coming of freedom
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Blacks adopted different ways of testing their freedom, including moving about, seeking kin, and rejecting older forms of deferential behavior
What effect did emancipation have on the structure of the Black family?
Black families increasingly adopted the nineteenth-century idea that men and women held different responsibilities
In which way did the Black church change during Reconstruction?
It started to play a central role as Blacks abandoned white-controlled religious institutions
For most formerly enslaved people, freedom first and foremost meant
How did southern leaders tend to react to Black freedom after the Civil War?
They tended to view it as a privilege and not a right
The Freedmen’s Bureau’s greatest accomplishments were in
education and health care
What did the freedmen request in their “Petition of Committee in Behalf of the Freedmen to Andrew Johnson” in 1865?
the right to purchase a homestead
The Enforcement Acts, passed by Congress in 1870 and 1871, were designed to
stop the activities of terrorist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan
In the 1870s, who claimed to have saved the white South from the corruption of northern and Black officials?
Which statement is true of Ku Klux Klan members?
They often targeted Black schoolhouses
By 1890, the majority of the American workforce
worked for wages
What did the 1880 census show for the first time?
A majority of Americans engaged in nonfarming jobs
How did the expansion of railroads accelerate the second industrial revolution in America?
Railroads created a true national market for U.S. goods
What changes did railroads bring to American society during the Gilded Age?
The introduction of railroads enabled a national market for goods and led to the creation of time zones
Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller
accumulated fortunes, grew powerful, and donated most of their money to charity
What was the difference between skilled and semiskilled workers during the Gilded Age?
Skilled workers were less common, possessed technical skills, and enjoyed better wages depending on the industry
Which of the following statements accurately describes the experiences of many semiskilled industrial workers in American factories during the Gilded Age?
Working conditions were dangerous and unstable, and workers often lacked any type of protection
What did Social Darwinists believe?
They believed that human progress was a natural process and, therefore, the government should not interfere with it
Why is the period between 1870 and 1890 known as the “Gilded Age”?
While there was a generalized idea that America was doing well on the surface, it masked corruption, oppression, and poverty
In Lochner v. New York (1905), the Supreme Court voided a state law that established the maximum hours bakers could work in New York. What reasoning did the Court give for this ruling?
The Court believed this law interfered with the right of contract and therefore infringed upon individual freedom
typically had thousands of acres of land or more
How did the displacement of Native peoples in Australia differ from the experience of Indians in the American West?
Government policy orchestrated the removal of Aboriginal children from their homes for official adoption by whites
Why was William Tweed so popular with New York’s immigrant poor?
He had provided food, fuel, and patronage to them in exchange for their votes
What happened in both the 1876 and 1888 presidential elections?
The losers of the popular vote won the electoral college
Which of the following describes the interactions between white settlers and Indian tribes in the West most accurately?
Army campaigns sought to destroy Indian economies by killing many buffalo
The Interstate Commerce Commission was established in 1887 to
ensure that railroads charged farmers and merchants reasonable and fair rates
How did the government respond to the conflict that arose from Indians who resisted the disruption of their lives?
The government sent troops to destroy the Indian economy by attacking their horses and buffalo
The Grange was an organization that
established cooperatives for storing and marketing farm output
What advice does Chief Joseph offer the white man in his 1879 speech in Washington, D.C.?
to treat all men, including Indians, the same way in order to live in peace
Which of the following ideas accurately summarizes Saum Song Bo’s response toward the construction of the Statue of Liberty in American Missionary (October 1885)?
The Statue of Liberty is misleading as a symbol of freedom due to the discrimination that the Americans and the French have shown the Chinese
In 1884, the Supreme Court ruled against John Elk when he tried to claim American citizenship. What reason did the Supreme Court give for rejecting his petition?
Whether he had achieved the degree of “civilization” required of American citizens was in question
What was the Ghost Dance movement?
It was a traditional religious revival that brought solace to the Native Americans who participated in it but made the government fear the possibility of an uprising
What was the aim of boarding schools for Indians?
to civilize the Indians through forced assimilation
The Knights of Labor
was an inclusive group that called for an array of reforms including the eight-hour workday
Which of the following statements accurately describes elections during the Gilded Age?
Elections were closely contested affairs characterized by intense party loyalty
Which statement about the People’s Party is correct?
It sought to speak for the “producing classes,” including farmers, miners, and industrial workers
Farmers believed that their plight derived from which of the following?
excessive interest rates for loans from bankers
Populists intended to do which of the following?
restore economic opportunity
What role did the federal troops have in the Pullman Strike of 1894?
They stopped the strike by using force
Which statement about Coxey’s Army is accurate?
They marched on Washington demanding economic relief
Henry Grady promoted the idea of a New South based on
industrial expansion and agricultural diversification
The Black middle class in southern cities
worked as teachers and physicians and owned businesses serving the Black community
Why did the South fail to attract significant economic development in the wake of Reconstruction?
Investors looked for cheap labor and low taxes but made few capital investments in the region
How did Black women challenge the racial ideology of the Jim Crow South?
They formed their own underground militant organizations
Which statement about Albion W. Tourgée is accurate?
As a North Carolina judge, Tourgée insisted that segregation violated the Fourteenth Amendment
The Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson
argued that segregated facilities did not discriminate
Why did Ida B. Wells say the United States had no right to call itself the “land of the free”?
She was referring to the lynchings of innocent Black men
In which of the following ways were the boundaries of freedom redrawn in the United States during the nineteenth century?
Several states adopted literacy and residency requirements in order to restrict immigrant voting
In the 1890s, 3.5 million immigrants arrived in the United States. Where did most of them come from?
Southern and Eastern Europe
In his Atlanta speech of 1895, Booker T. Washington
encouraged Blacks to adjust to segregation
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
excluded Chinese immigrants from entering the country
In United States v. Wong Kim Ark, the Supreme Court ruled that Asian descendants born on U.S. soil became U.S. citizens at birth. In what regulation did they base this decision?
American expansionism after the 1890s
was largely driven by the desire for expanded overseas trade
Which of the following did the Open Door policy most exemplify?
the United States’ pursuit of markets and investment opportunities
What did the term “white man’s burden” mean?
Domination of non-whites by white people was necessary for the progress of civilization
In the first decade of the twentieth century, American farm communities
entered a “golden age” because of rising urban demand for farm goods
Why did millions of American farm families migrate westward from 1900 to 1910?
The availability of free land meant more opportunities for commercial farming in the West
The Progressive movement drew its strength from
reformers and social scientists
The writer whose work encouraged the passage of the Meat Inspection Act was
Progressive-era immigration was part of a larger process of worldwide migration set in motion by which of the following forces?
the annexation of the Philippines
provided American employers with workers who signed long-term labor contracts
About which of the following did Ida Tarbell write an investigative journalistic story?
Most new immigrants who arrived during the early years of the twentieth century
lived in close-knit ethnic communities
Which of the following statements about mass consumption in the early twentieth century is true?
The promise of mass consumption became the foundation for a new understanding of freedom
During the Progressive era,
growing numbers of native-born white women worked in offices
The term “Fordism”
describes an economic system based on mass production and mass consumption
Industrial freedom in the Progressive era meant in practice
a loss of personal autonomy for skilled workers working under scientific management
What made Eugene Debs a successful leader?
He unified a diverse group of people for the socialist cause
The Industrial Workers of the World
advocated for a workers’ revolution
The battle for free speech among workers in the early twentieth century
was led by the Industrial Workers of the World
The Ludlow Massacre
happened during a strike against Rockefeller-owned companies
The Progressive era’s birth-control movement was characterized by
public lectures on sexual freedom and contraception by activists such as Emma Goldman
Henry George introduced a slate of political changes known as the Oregon System. The system included which of the following?
initiative, referendum, and recall
What did passage of the Seventeenth Amendment entail?
U.S. senators were now chosen by popular vote
In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court
argued that women were too weak to work long hours
Theodore Roosevelt’s taking of the Panama Canal Zone is an example of
his belief that civilized nations had an obligation to establish order in an unruly world
Why did the United States conduct military operations in Caribbean countries between 1901 and 1920?
to create an economic environment conducive to U.S. corporations
Which of the following statements is accurate about William Howard Taft?
Taft believed the best way to promote American interests in the Caribbean and Central America was through economic investment
Which of the following assessments of the Roosevelt Corollary is accurate?
It proposed the United States could function as an international police power within the Western Hemisphere
In the presidential election of 1916, Woodrow Wilson
used the campaign slogan “He kept us out of war.”
The Zimmermann Telegram
was a German invitation sent to the Mexican government asking them to join them in a war against the United States
Wilson issued the Fourteen Points hoping to
provide a clear statement of America’s war aims to the people
Most Progressives saw World War I as a golden opportunity because
they hoped to disseminate Progressive values around the globe
Why did the War Industries Board establish standardized specifications during World War I?
to increase efficiency and speed production