Bio 9 Semester Exam

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ecology

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Biology

9th

106 Terms

1

ecology

the branch of biology dealing w interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment is called

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2

a community

the simplest grouping of more than one kind of organism in the biosphere is

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3

modeling

which ecological inquiry method is an ecologist using when he or she sets up a greenhouse and measures the effects of different levels of carbon dioxide on an endangered plant species?

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4

primary producers

the algae at the beginning of the food chain in figure 3-1 are

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5

by using light energy to make carbohydrates

How do most primary producers make their own food?

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6

They both obtain energy by consuming other organisms

in what way are herbivores and carnivores alike?

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7

biomass

the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called the

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8

food web

a model of the complex feeding interactions among organisms in a community from producers to decomposers is called a

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9

omnivores

what animals eat both producers and consumers

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10

trophic level

what is the term for each step in the transfer of energy and matter within a food web?

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11

carnivore, consumer

a bird stalks, kills, and then eats an insect. based on its behavior, which pair of ecological terms describes the bird?

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12

decomposers

what goes in box 5 of the food web in figure 3-2

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13

energy, biomass, and numbers

what are the three kinds of ecological pyramids?

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14

eliminated as heat

only 10% of the energy stored in an organism can be passed on to the next trophic level. of the remaining energy, some is used for the organism's life processes, and the rest is

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15

heterotroph

a word that means the same thing as consumer is

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16

the water cycle

the repeated movement of water between Earth's surface and the atmosphere is called

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17

bacteria

nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by

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18

by consuming plants or other animals

animals get the most of the nitrogen they need

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19

energy flows in one direction and nutrients recycle

the movements of energy and nutrients through living systems are different because

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20

scavengers

animals that get energy by eating the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died of natural causes are called

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21

producers

what is at the base of all ecological pyramids?

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22

climate

the average conditions of the atmosphere in a particular area are referred to as the area's

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23

a natural phenomenon that maintains Earth's temperature range

the greenhouse effect is

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24

distribution of sunlight

Earth has 3 main climate zones because of the differences in latitude and, thus

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25

global wind patterns

the tendency for warm air to rise and cool air to sink results in

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26

an organism can "make a living" and survive in its niche

why is an organisms niche like a persons occupation?

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27

habitat

polar bears live in the arctic. the arctic is their

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28

herbivory

An interaction in which an animal feeds on plants is called

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29

The fish population would increase

what would happen if the population of the bird species shown in the ecosystem in figure 4-1 were to suddenly decrease?

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30

predators

A wolf pack hunts, kills, and feeds on a moose. In this interaction, the wolves are

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31

Mutualism

A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit is

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32

Parasitism

A symbiotic relationship in which one organism is harmed and other benefits is

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33

secondary succession begins on soil and primary succession begins on newly exposed surfaces

what is one difference between primary and secondary succession?

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34

trees and shrubs

Figure 4-2 shows succession in an ecosystem. What organisms are found in the climax community for this ecosystem?

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35

tundra

which biome is characterized by very low temperatures, little precipitation, and permafrost?

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36

tundra and desert

Which two biomes have the least precipitation?

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37

boreal forest

which biome has long cold winters and short summers, and is home to conifers?

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38

whitetail deer

Which animal would be found in the biome that has cold to moderate winters, warm summers, and fertile soils; and is home to a variety of vegetation, such as coniferous trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, flowering shrubs, and ferns?

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39

rivers and streams

Freshwater ecosystems that often originate from underground sources in mountains or hills are

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40

an estuary

A wetland that contains a mixture of fresh water and salt water is called

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41

fish species that people buy and sell live in estuaries

Estuaries are commercially important because

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42

environmental harm from the burning of fossil fuels

What is one negative consequence of the Industrial Revolution?

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43

examples of ecosystem goods and services

Breathable air and drinkable water are

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44

they cannot be replaced after they are used up

which if the following is true about nonrenewable resources?

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45

Spending only as much money as you earn

Using environmental resources in a way that does not cause long-term environmental harm is like

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46

poor farming practices

The 1930s Dust Bowl in the Great Plains was caused by?

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47

desertification

when farming, overgrazing, climate change, and/or seasonal drought change farmland into land that cannot support plant life, it is called

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48

contour plowing

Farmers can reduce soil erosion by

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49

point source pollution

what is shown in figure 6-2 above?

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50

kill insects

DDT was used to

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51

increases

As DDT moves up the trophic levels in food chains or food webs its concentration

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52

acid rain

the sulfur and nitrogen compounds in smog combine with water to form

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53

smog

the gray-brown haze often found over large cities is called

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54

crowd out native species

introduced species can threaten biodiversity because they can

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55

loss of habitats

one of the greatest threats today to biodiversity is

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56

many habitats and species are at high risk of extinction

An ecological hot spot is an area where

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57

ecological footprint

the land and water ecosystems that provide the resources that a person uses and that neutralize that persons wastes is part of that person's

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58

the microscope

what advance in technology made the discovery of cells possible?

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59

very few cells are able to reproduce

Which of the following is NOT a principle of the cell theory?

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60

the cell lacks a nucleus

Looking at a cell under a microscope, you note that it is a prokaryote. How do you know?

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61

eukaryotes

which of the following enclose their DNA in a nucleus?

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62

bacteria

which of the following organisms are prokaryotes?

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63

stores DNA

which of the following is a function of the nucleus?

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64

structure C (the biggest one)

which structure in the cell shown in figure 7-2 above stores materials, such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates?

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65

ribosome

which structure makes proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus?

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66

structure A

Which structure in the cell shown in Figure 7-3 above modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials for storage or release from the cell?

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67

Mitochondrion

which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use?

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68

chloroplast

which organelle would you expect to find in plant cells but not animal cells?

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69

cell membrane

which of the following structures serves as the cell's boundary from its environment?

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70

proteins

the cell membrane contains channels and pumps that help move materials from one side to the other. what are these channels and pumps made of?

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71

molecules constantly move and collide with each other

diffusion occurs because

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72

osmosis

the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called

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73

water to move into the cell

An animal cell that is surrounded by fresh water will burst because the osmotic pressure causes

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74

active transport

which means of particle transport is shown in figure 7-4 above?

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75

heart

which of the following is an example of an organ?

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76

a tissue

a group of similar cells that perform a particular function is called

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77

work together to perform a specific function

an organ system is a group of organs that

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78

cell, tissue, organ, organ system

Which list represents the levels of organization in a multicellular organism from the simplest level to the most complex level?

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79

alleles

the different forms of a gene are called

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80

control crosses between plants

Gregor Mendel removed the male parts from the flowers of some plants in order to

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81

All are expected to be tall

In the Punnett square shown in Figure 11-1, which of the following is true about the offspring resulting from the cross?

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82

Principle of Independent Assortment

What principle states that during gamete formation genes for different traits separate without influencing each other's inheritance?

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83

4

how many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?

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84

2

using figure 11-3 to answer the following question. if a pea plant that is heterozygous for round, yellow peas (RrYy) is crossed w a pea plant that is homozygous for round peas but heyerozygous for yellow peas (RRYy), how many different phenotypes are their offspring expected to show?

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85

all organisms

Gregor Mendel's principles of genetics apply to

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86

multiple alleles

in rabbits, there are four different versions of the gene for coat color. what pattern of inheritance is this?

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87

polygenic traits

Variation in human skin color is an example of

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88

genes and the environment

The arctic fox is blue-gray in the summer and white in the winter. What most likely influence(s) this change?

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89

meiosis

gametes are produced by the process of

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90

four genetically different cells

What is formed at the end of meiosis?

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91

are on the same chromosome

linked genes

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92

a bacterium

figure 20-1 shows the structure of

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93

C

which of the bacterial cells shown in figure 20-2 is a coccus?

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94

endospores

some prokaryotes are able to survive unfavorable conditions by forming

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95

near the surfaces of lakes and streams

where are you likely to find a photo autotroph?

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96

decomposers

prokaryotes that break down dead organisms and wastes are called

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97

force a host cells to make copies of the virus

proteins in the viral capsid or on the surface membrane function to

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98

DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat

what is the basic structure of a virus?

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99

bursting of the host cell

a lytic infection concludes with the

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100

bacteria

bacteriophages infect

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