mus 203 exam 1

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Culture

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Music

177 Terms

1

Culture

A shared set of beliefs that define a group of people (not racial or geographical)

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2

Enculturation

How infants learn culture

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3

Acculturation

2 or more separate cultural groups come together, one is usually dominant

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4

Appropriation

Take things from environment and make them who we are

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5

Intra-cultural exchange

Exchange of ideas within you own culture

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6

Inter-cultural exchange

Exchange of ideas between 2 cultures

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7

Eurocentric

How you perceive a culture from your own personal view

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8

Organology

Study of Musical instruments

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9

Aerophones

Wind instruments

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10

Chordophones

Guitar strings

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11

Membranophones

Drums

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12

Idiophones

Bell

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13

Electronophones

Mechanical instrument or electrical

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14

Frequency

Pitch Speed of vibrations in the air

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15

Amplitude

Volume

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16

Spectrum

Timbre-harmonics one voice and another one (2 different instruments), how we distinguish quality of sounds

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17

Rhythm

A series of oral events in patterns time relationship

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18

Meter

Repeating pattern

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19

Rubato

Free rhythm, no steady beat

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20

Melody

Lead voice or lead instrument, how we identify song built on by scales

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21

Scale

Most common is 5 note scale make up melodies

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22

Ornamentation

Decoration left up to performer to add stuff

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23

Syllabic

Separate note for every syllable

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24

Mellismatic

Singing multiple notes over single syllable

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25

Harmony

Under the melody spate voices singing at once notes sounding simultaneously

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26

Chord

3 notes at the same time

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27

Texture

How the different notes relate to each other

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28

Monophony

Single line one sound

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29

Heterophony

2 or more individuals performing same melody with different interpretations

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30

Polyphony

2 or more separate melodies most of music these days

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31

Form

How music is arranged from start, middle, end

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32

Arrival of Indians in America

Between 50000 to 8000 years ago

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33

European Contact

2 million Indians in US rich in culture

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34

Difficulties of studying Indian music

Oral culture, no written records, and disease wiped out a lot of Indians

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35

Role of Music in native culture

Linked to ceremony and ritual

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36

Link to ritual

Songs come out of animal spirit

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37

Vision Quest

Individual go out in wilderness and have visions about songs, ritual

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38

Spiritual power

Music is seen as having power in carrying out the ritual task of a particular ceremony. Correct performance enhances that power

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39

Efficacy

Ability to carry out the ritual function rather than how it sounds

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40

Native American musical characteristics

Mostly vocal; Song Form, Vocables, Scales monophonic/heterophonic

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41

Native American scales

Pentatonic scales most common

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42

Musical Instruments

Drums, rattles, flutes - most common no string instruments

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43

Plains style

Intertribal pow-wow dance guest - male singers and low voices and loud accents Midwest region

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44

Southwest style

Double headed drum, 2 beats, more contours then plain style pushing, intense voices, wider leaps to high note and low note long short beat

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45

Northwest Pacific

Use of log drums and instruments in shape of animals, deeper sound, associated with pot late associated with power (songs) associated with hunting, darker/rounder voice

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46

Trail of Tears

Forced movement of Indians to Oklahoma and Texas

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47

Ghost Dance

A reawakening of Indian dead, seen as war dance seen by US Government, leads to massacre at wounded knee no drums used just voices

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48

Peyote Cult (Native American Church)

Outgrowth of ghost dance many healing ceremonies

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49

Pow wow

20th century practice, intertribal gatherings all around US, way for NA to reconnect with traditions

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50

Plainsong

A simple song, heterophony, not many songs, limited amount, plain

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51

Psalm books

Hymns

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52

Bay Psalm Book

First song, book, religious

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53

Psalm Meter

Amount of syllables per lone

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54

Common Meter

8-6-8-6

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55

Long Meter

8-8-8-8

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56

Short Meter

6-6-8-6, least common meter style

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57

Praise

Idea of purpose of worship, was of higher power, didn't use a lot of notation with poor people

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58

Edification

Religious rituals should edify church, complex arrangements

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59

Lining out

Leader would recite song long then audience would, relates to praise

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60

Singing Schools

Singing masters and would train people, relates to edification

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61

"Regular" singing

Good voice production, good singing, trained singing

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62

William Billings

America's 1st composer of note, New England Psalm-Singer, Publisher, Subscription Sales

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63

Subscription Sales

How Billings sold them, advertise them with books, and got pre sales, early publishing

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64

Shape Notes

Notes with different shapes like diamond and square

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65

Sacred Harp

Most famous shape note

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66

Lowell Mason

Composer, choir director, developed 1st school for music

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67

Teacher System

Teach them to sing first then learn how to read music (Mason)

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68

19th century urban gospel revival

influenced by Great Awakening

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69

Slave Trade

Worldwide activity half million to US brought their own culture

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70

African musical traits

Emphasis on percussion and polyrhymths, dance is huge part of music

call and response

heterogeneous sound ideal (idea of a lot of different songs)

vocal style= thick nasal sound

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71

Polyrhythms

Short interlocking parts

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72

Regional differences in slavery (north, south)

North-Not as many slaved, more acculturation

South- More plantation culture, a lot more blacks and harsher work, more culture because more people

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73

African Holiday Festivals

Africans were allied to have holidays, sang and danced, drums were banned except on these days

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74

Work Songs, Field hollers

People singing in fields

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75

Evangelism among African Americans

Christianize blacks

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76

Controversy over Conversion

People thought it would make them free if baptized

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77

The Great Awakenings

Outdoor religious gatherings in rural areas, people of black and white gathered to sing and dance

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78

Spirituals

Taking European ideas to an African idea, result of Great Awakenings

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79

Richard Allen

First African American preacher; African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), Wandering refrains

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80

African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME)

Church Created by Allen

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81

Wandering refrains

Allen song book had call and response system, 2 line phrase and could be inserted into any song, used in a call and response manner

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82

Ring Shout

Dance when you move in a circle, dances with spirituals, goes with black spirituals, root of all African American music tradition

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83

Georgia Sea Islands

Islands off Georgia, strong African community

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84

Cloaked meanings in spiritual texts

Used to communicate messages songs, had encoded meanings, illusions from bible used as code for African Americans about their slavery

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85

Ballads

Narrative songs originated in Europe, date back to Middle ages, built on series of stanzas that use a strophic text, oral tradition so there are many variations of the songs

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86

Stanza

Verses sets of 4 or 5

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87

Strophic text

Music keeps repeating

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88

Emotional core

Main story, main message remains same in different version despite oral tradition

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89

Imported Ballad type

From British Isles, from tradition

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90

Naturalized Ballad type

Text has been changed to be same as local community, songs from BI applied to America

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91

Native Ballad type

Ballads created in US, propoganda for Revolutionary War

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92

Broadside ballads

Single sheet of paper set to popular song, hastily written, dealt with topical events, published in newspapers, 1st real commercial music

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93

Murder ballads

Popular in BI, involves a death, based on real events or supernatural

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94

Colonial dance music

Lots of dance music, somewhat controversial to more conservative people

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95

Francis James Child

Traveled through British isles, first effort to study folk music

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96

Child Ballads

from child; The English and Scottish Popular Ballads

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97

Cecil Sharp

Went through Appalachians and published them as "Folk songs of the Southern Appalachian", first effort to study folk in America

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98

Olive Campbell

Was with Sharp from US

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99

John and Alan Lomax

Expanded beyond ballads, Caribbean music, inspired Urban folk song movement

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100

Urban Folk song movement

From 1930s music, had a purpose, expression of the working class

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