AP Gov final vocab set

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Limited Government

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162 Terms

1

Limited Government

The democratic ideal that suggests that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens.

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2

Natural Rights

The democratic ideal that suggests that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

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3

Popular Sovereignty

The democratic ideal that proposes that it is the people who should hold absolute power

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4

Social Contract

The democratic ideal that suggests people should give up some rights to their government in return for security

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5

Declaration of Independence

The document that formally separated the United States from Britain and outlined the democratic ideals of the new country

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6

Constitutional Convention

Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to form a new government

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7

Participatory Democracy

A theory of democracy that holds that citizens should actively and directly oversee the government

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8

Pluralist Democracy

A theory of democracy that holds that competition between groups / factions keeps democracies balanced

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9

Elite Democracy

A theory of democracy that limits the citizens' role to choosing among competing, qualified leaders

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10

Federalist 10

A foundational document outlining the way in which a large republic can limit factions

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11

Federalist 51

A foundational document suggesting that checks and balances and separation of powers is the way to control an ambitious government

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12

Brutus 1

A foundational document that says a large republic is inferior to small, locally-controlled states within a confederacy

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13

Articles of Confederation

A foundational document that served as America's first government and provided sovereignty to the States

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14

Shays' Rebellion

Rebellion in 1786 / 1787 that showed the weakness of the early federal government in maintaining order

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15

Connecticut Compromise

System outlined by the Constitution that established two houses of Congress: the House of Representatives, in which representation is based on a state's share of the U.S. population, and the Senate, in which each state has two representatives.

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16

Electoral College

System outlined by the Constitution that provides for a body of people representing the states of the US, who formally cast votes for the election of the president and vice president.

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17

3/5 Compromise

System outlined by the Constitution that slaves would be worth 3/5 of a person for counting a State's population

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18

Amendment Process for the Constitution

Requires a 2/3 vote in Congress or in a Constitutional Convention to propose, and a 3/4 vote by the states to be ratified

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19

Commerce Clause

Clause stating that Congress can regulate interstate and international commerce.

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20

Necessary and Proper Clause

Clause of the Constitution setting forth the implied powers of Congress to fulfill their enumerated powers

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21

McCulloch v. Maryland

Supreme Court case that ruled that the federal government had the power to establish a national bank as an implied power under the Necessary and Proper Clause

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22

US v. Lopez

Supreme Court case that ruled that the federal government could not use the Commerce Clause to justify regulating guns in schools

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23

10th Amendment

Amendment of the Constitution that provides states the right to Reserved Powers

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24

Supremacy Clause

Clause of the Constitution that describes the Constitution as outweighing / overruling federal laws, and federal laws as outweighing / overruling state laws

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25

Enumerated Powers

The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution.

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26

Concurrent Powers

The powers held jointly by the national and state governments.

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27

Reserved Powers

Powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states

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28

Unfunded Mandates

Programs that the Federal government requires States to implement without Federal funding.

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29

Categorical Grants

Federal grants given to states for specific purposes, such as for education programs

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30

Block Grants

Federal grants given to states that leave most of the decisions about how the money will be used to the states

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31

Senate

The upper house of Congress, made up of two representatives from each state

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32

House

The lower house of Congress, made up of a number of representatives proportional to each states' population

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33

Senate Majority Leader

The chief spokesperson of the majority party in the Senate, who directs the legislative program and party strategy

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34

Speaker of the House

The leader of the majority party who serves as the presiding officer of the House of Representatives

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35

Rules Committee

A standing committee of the House of Representatives decides which specific bills can be debated, amended, and considered

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36

Filibuster

A practice in the Senate that stems from unlimited debate and allows a Senator to delay a vote on a bill by continuously talking

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37

Cloture

A procedure which requires 60 votes and ends a filibuster

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38

Discharge Petition

Petition that, if signed by majority of the House of Representatives' members, will bring a bill out of its committee and to the full floor for debate

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39

Mandatory Spending

Budget categories that must be funded at a certain level by law, for example, entitlement programs such as Social Security

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40

Discretionary Spending

Budget categories that may be funded at a level determined by Congress, for example, military spending

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41

Interest

The price paid at a given rate for the use of borrowed money

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42

Keynesian Economics

Theory that suggests the government should boost the economy by spending, especially on infrastructure or other programs that will create jobs

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43

Supply-Side Economics

Theory that suggests the government should boost the economy by cutting taxes

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44

Pork Barrel

The use of government funds for projects designed to please voters or legislators and win votes in a congressperson's own district or state

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45

Logrolling

Vote trading between two congresspeople

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46

Divided Government

One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress

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47

Gridlock

The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government

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48

Trustee Model

A system where congresspeople see it as their role to make the decision they think is best when voting

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49

Delegate Model

A system where congresspeople see it as their role to vote as a perfect representation of their constituents as possible

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50

Politico Model

A system where congresspeople vote in such a way to please as many people as possible, including party leaders, voters, and the media

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51

Formal Powers of the President

Executive powers directly stated in the Constitution; e.g., the veto

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52

Informal Powers of the President

Executive powers not directly stated in the Constitution; e.g., executive agreements

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53

Commander-in-Chief

The role of the president that allows them to order troops

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54

Executive Agreements

Informal agreements between the president and other world leaders

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55

Executive Orders

Formal orders issues by the president that carry with them the force of a law

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56

Signing Statements

Occasional written comments attached to a bill signed by the president

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57

Lame Duck

A person still in office after he or she has lost a bid for reelection / cannot be reelected any more

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58

22nd Amendment

Amendment that created a 2 term limit on presidents.

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59

Federalist 70

A foundational document that suggests the country should have a strong, unified, energetic executive branch

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60

Advice and Consent

Term in the Constitution describing the U.S. Senate's power to review and approve treaties and presidential appointments.

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61

Power of the Purse

Congress' power to influence public policy by setting the budget for the federal government

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62

Origination Clause

Part of the Constitution describing that all taxation bills must begin in the House of Representatives

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63

Bully Pulpit

The ability to use the office of the presidency to promote a particular program and/or to influence Congress to accept legislative proposals

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64

Citizens United v. FEC

Supreme Court case that ruled that corporations may spend an unlimited amount toward elections and campaigns so long as they remain independent, under the First Amendment

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65

Marbury v. Madison

Supreme Court case that established the judicial branch's power of judicial review

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66

Federalist 78

Foundational document that outlines the importance of judicial review in protecting the Constitution and the judicial branch's independence

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67

Stare Decisis

The practice of relying on precedent in deciding most cases

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68

Precedent

A previous court case ruling

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69

Judicial Activism

A judicial philosophy in which judges interpret the Constitution as "living," adapting it to the current times and issues

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70

Judicial Restraint

A judicial philosophy in which judges play a minimal role, only intervening / striking down laws when absolutely necessary

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71

Judicial Review

Allows the court to determine the Constitutionality of laws and actions of the government

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72

Bureaucracy

A large organization consisting of all government officials who carry out the daily work of the government, organized under the executive branch

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73

Patronage System

A method of choosing bureaucrats based on their party loyalty / contributions

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74

Merit System

A method of choosing bureaucrats based on their expertise or qualifications for the job

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75

Iron Triangles

A mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees

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76

Bureaucratic Discretion

Bureaucrats' use of their own judgement in interpreting and carrying out the laws of Congress

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77

Oversight

Congress' ability to check the bureaucracy through hearings, investigations, and the power of the purse

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78

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)

Regulatory agency responsible for the environment

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79

SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)

Regulatory agency responsible for investments and trading markets

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80

FEC (Federal Election Commission)

Regulatory agency responsible for elections and campaign finance laws

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81

Civil Liberties

Constitutional freedoms granted to individuals

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82

Civil Rights

Constitutional protections from discrimination granted to groups based gender, race, age, etc.

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83

1st Amendment

Amendment protecting free speech, religion, and the press

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84

2nd Amendment

Amendment protecting the states' right to a militia and an individual's right to bear arms

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85

4th Amendment

Amendment protecting individuals from unreasonable searches and seizures

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86

5th Amendment

Amendment protecting individuals from self-incrimination, double jeopardy, and eminent domain without compensation

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87

8th Amendment

Amendment protecting individuals from cruel or unusual punishment, often associated with death penalty cases

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88

Engel v. Vitale

Supreme Court case ruling that a school's morning prayer violated the Establishment Clause

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89

Wisconsin v. Yoder

Supreme Court case ruling that a state's compulsory education for an Amish family violated the Free Exercise Clause

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90

Schenck v. United States

Supreme Court case ruling that speech that caused a "clear and present danger" was not protecting as free speech

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91

Tinker v. Des Moines

Supreme Court case that protected a student's right to symbolic, non-disruptive speech in school

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92

New York TImes v. United States

Supreme Court case ruling that the government almost never had the right to exercise prior restraint (the censorship of the press before publishing)

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93

Clear and Present Danger

Speech that can be limited on the basis of its consequences; e.g., "falsely shouting fire in a crowded theatre"

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94

Symbolic Speech

An action that carries a message and is therefore protected as speech

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95

Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions

Regulations regarding how the freedom of expression may occur, but not limiting that expression altogether

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96

McDonald v. Chicago

Supreme Court case ruling that the 2nd Amendment is incorporated to state and local governments

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97

Selective Incorporation

Process of applying the Bill of Rights' fundamental rights to the states through the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment

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98

Gideon v. Wainwright

Supreme Court case ruling that the right to an attorney extends to all cases, even when the accused cannot afford an attorney

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99

Roe v. Wade

Supreme Court case ruling that early term abortions are protected under the right to privacy

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100

Right to Privacy

The right to be left alone by the government, interpreted through a combination of the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 9th amendments.

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