M2: Philosophies of Science

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111 Terms

1

science and technology

  • pervasive in society and thus are usually taken

    for granted

  • plays a crucial role in

    • Social processes

    • societal histories

    • Current and future societal undertakings

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2

science

organized body of knowledge concerning the physical world, both animate and inanimate

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3

science

attitudes and methods through which this body of knowledge is formed

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science

method of investigating nature — a way of knowing about nature that discovers reliable knowledge* about it

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technology

practical application of science

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technology

control or manipulate nature for the benefit of humankind

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7

carl sagan

for him, science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge

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8

carl sagan

for him, science is Based on experiment, on a willingness to challenge old dogma, on an openness to see the universe as it really is

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9

carl sagan

for him, science requires courage to question the conventional wisdom

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10

carl sagan

for him, goal for science is to find out how the world works, to seek what

regularities there may be, to penetrate the connections

of things

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11

carl sagan

knowing the universe

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12

robert pirsig

for him, scientific method is to make sure nature hasn’t misled you into thinking you know something you don’t actually know

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robert pirsig

for him, scientific method is a careful approach to the beginning of scientific questions

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robert pirsig

for him, experimentation is thought of as all of science itself because that is the only part with much visual surface

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robert pirsig

on scientific method

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true

[true or false]

An experiment is never a failure solely because it fails to achieve predicted results

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scientific method

[robert pirsig] Asking the right questions and choosing the right tests and drawing the right conclusions

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ludwig fleck

to look, to see, to know

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ways of knowing (and doing)

ludwig fleck
- what you think is evidence of what you know

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20

positivist and constructionist approach

[ludwig fleck] 2 ways of knowing what a fact is

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positivist approach

[ludwig fleck]

  • facts are self-evident, that they are simply there 

  • physical phenomena that manifest themselves visibly are held to be factual

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constructionist approach

[ludwig fleck]

  • facts are socially created

  • facts are facts once people agree that these things constitute a fact

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consensus on what was important to understand

  • accumulation of knowledge

  • use of experimentation and observation

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ludwig fleck

for him, in order to see, one has to know what is essential and what is inessential

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ludwig fleck

for him, Facts are created not in and of themselves but because of the cognition of their existence

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thought collective

[ludwig fleck] creates a collective mood, and because both understanding and misunderstandings, creates its own peculiar thought style. 

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professionals and exoterics

[ludwig fleck] As the thought collective becomes more and more complex and sophisticated, it divides itself into the esoteric, the [blank] and [blank]

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exoteric individuals

echo the pronouncement professionals gain more authority

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thought style

has both the active and passive elements

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active elements

[thought style] shape the way people think about the world

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passive elements

[thought style] which the members of the thought collective hold to be objective reality

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social constructs

the reality of which are likely to change over time as more and more work is put into the ideas shared by the collective

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social constructs

nature of the uniqueness of the thought collectives that they are incommensurable 

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false (may not be; false)

[true or false] what is a fact to one collective may be meaningful or even true to another thought collective 

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true

[true or false] What is a fact to one collective may not be meaningful or even false to another thought collective

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thought styles

  • not immutable or immune to change

  • may change once the realization sets in that there are several phenomena that are not accounted for in the standard way of thinking

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37

david moshman

epistemic development and the perils of pluto

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epistemic cognition

[david moshman] knowledge about knowledge

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epistemic cognition

[david moshman] the process of thinking about one’s forms of knowledge and ways of knowing

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epistemic development

[david moshman] Progress in knowledge about knowledge

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epistemic development

[david moshman] TWO LEVELS: associated with childhood and with adolescence and adulthood

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childhood and adolescence and adulthood

what two levels are associated with epistemic development?

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43

objectivist, subjectivist, rationalist epistemologies

what are the epistemic domains?

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44

objectivist epistemologies

  • an objective domain of truth

  • Take facts and logical proofs as paradigm case of knowledge

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subjectivist epistemologies

  • a subjective domain of truth

  • View knowledge as opinion, and opinion as a matter of taste

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rationalist epistemologies

  • A rational domain of reasonable interpretation

  • Construe knowledge, in a world of interpretation and inference, as justified belief

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objectivist epistemology

matters of truth

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48

objectivist epistemology

WHICH EPISTEMIC DOMAIN CORRESPONDS TO THIS QUESTION?

  • Is pluto a planet?

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49

objectivist epistemology

WHICH EPISTEMIC DOMAIN CORRESPONDS TO THIS QUESTION?

  • how many planets are there in our solar system?

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50

subjectivist epistemology

matters of taste

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subjective epistemology

WHICH EPISTEMIC DOMAIN CORRESPONDS TO THIS QUESTION?

  • which planet is the best

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52

rationalist epistemology

matters of interpretation

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rationalist epistemology

WHICH EPISTEMIC DOMAIN CORRESPONDS TO THIS QUESTION?

  • which planet (s) can support life

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54

scientist

[in relation with society] Detached, impersonal and objective person wearing glasses and socially awkward most of the time

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scientist

[in relation with society] gatekeeper of often mysterious and arcane knowledge, knowledge that could be either helpful or harmful

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priest or priestess

with whom are scientists often equated with?

  • the holder of seemingly supernatural wisdom

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scientist in the normal view

about the pure seeking of knowledge for its own sake, in the hope that one day it would be used

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scientists in a post-normal view

providing immediate solutions to problems faced by society

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sagan, pirsig, fleck, moshman

philosophers of science

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60

sagan’s philosophy of science

  • Understanding is a form of ecstasy and illumination

  • Limitations on the universe allow us for some predictability

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61

pirsig’s philosophy of science

  • Two types of reasoning inductive and deductive

  • Discussion on the different hierarchies of methods to be tested in the maintenance of the motorcycle

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fleck’s philosophy of science

  • In order to see, one has to know what is essential and inessential

  • Thought styles are derived from the collective body

  • Thought styles isolated from each other will clash

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moshman’s philosophy of science

  • Epistemic cognition (knowledge about knowledge)

  • 3 domains: truth, taste, and interpretation

  • Discussion on how definitions can impact culture (i.e., genocide, Pluto)

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64

karl popper

for him, for knowledge to be scientific it should be falsifiable and testable. 

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65

true

[true or false] Statements derived from dogma though difficult to falsify may not be considered scientific since the mechanism with which to falsify is not readily seen

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falsification theory

Subscribes to a certain ideology and dogma that may not necessarily be readily falsifiable and may be considered unscientific

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falsification theory

Example of a dogmatic statement: Humans are created equal and are created in the image, and likeness of God

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68

karl popper

who thought of evolutionary diagram of knowledge?

<p>who thought of evolutionary diagram of knowledge?</p>
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69

evolutionary diagram of knowledge

“The way of science is paved with discarded theories which were once declared self-evident”

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70

darwin’s principle of natural selection

what principle does the evolutionary epistemology apply to scientific theories and to other forms of knowledge?

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71

evolutionary diagram of knowledge

It is involved with problem-solving and error elimination under different forms of selective pressure. 

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72

evolutionary diagram of knowledge

It was the view of Popper that every organism, from the amoeba to Einstein, is constantly engaged in problem-solving. 

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73

evolutionary diagram of knowledge

what philosophy is this?

P1: Which model would serve best in sellling a stamp pad? 

Temporary Solutions (TS) 

TS1: a fashion magazine type of female model. 

TS2: an athletic male model 

TS3: a young child in pre-school 

TS4: a librarian 

TS5: a cat. 

Error Elimination (EE): a small market test with the various advertisements. 

Say the Surviving Solution (SS) is a cat. The Pn+1 would be “which cat is a suitable model for a stamp pad?” 

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74

thomas kuhn

created the paradigm shift theory

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75

paradigm shift theory

  • thomas kuhn

  • Structure of the scientific revolution

  • Science does not evolve gradually toward truth. 

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paradigm shift model

[thomas kuhn] highlights an initial normal science or a thinking with which data are to be associated with

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model drift, crisis, and revolution

[paradigm shift theory] stages in the process wherein evidence does not match and support the existing normal science

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paradigm shift

what philosophy is this?

Theory: Exposure to violent/improper themes (images, literature, etc.) promotes violent action/improper (murder, robbery, rape, disrespect to women).

Extension of theory: Videogames filled with violent themes promote crimes. 

Normal Science: Test the hypothesis for men who play violent video games. Design a study as to whether the increase in the amount of violent video games resulted in higher crime rates.

Model Drift then Model Crisis: No evidence showed that more violent video games increased crime rates. 

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79

rational construction theory

involves the idea of a core theory surrounded by a protective belt of auxiliary hypothesis which interacts with outside data and evidence

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imre lakatos

invented the rational construction theory

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auxiliary hypotheses

[rational construction theory] ideas derivable form a certain core theory which in turn may or may not be supported by data and evidence

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core theory

[rational construction theory] can be strengthened or weakened depending on the evidence and its alignments with the auxiliary theory

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rational construction model

what philosophy is this?

Core Theory: Increasing price of goods decreases its demand. 

Auxiliary Hypothesis: Adding sugar tax to the prices of beverage would decrease the consumption of sugary drinks. 

Data/Evidence: There was decrease in sales of softdrinks in the Philippines after the implementation of TRAIN Law on sugar. 

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84

carl hempel

created the paradox of confirmation

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85

paradox of confirmation

[carl hempel] a warning to scientists that instances that confirms a theory do not imply that the theory is correct. 

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86

paradox of confirmation

[carl hempel] Group of generalizable examples that challenge the adequacy of specific formal accounts of when evidence confirms a theory 

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87

paradox of confirmation

what philosophy is this?

  • For the idea that the maximum speed of light is 300,000,000 m/s. It does not mean that since every measured speed of light of various light sources were observed to be less than 300,000,000 m/s that the maximum speed of light is less than or equal to 300,000,000 m/s. A single measurement of a light source with speed greater than 300,000,000 m/s would render the theory false. 

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paradox of confirmation

what philosophy is this?

  • 1. The statements “ (1) all ravens are black” and “ (2) something that is not black is not a raven” are logically equivalent. They are contrapositives of each other. 

    2. If an instance of a raven being black proves statement (1), then an instance of statement (2) being logically equivalent to (1) also proves statement (1). 

    3. The existence of a green shirt (a non-black non-raven) would also confirm statement (1). 

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89

john dewey

created the instrumentalism philosophy

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90

instrumentalism

[john dewey] explains that the purpose of science is in predicting useful phenomena

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instrumentalism

[john dewey] a way of thinking in that the ideas of science do not have attachment to absolute truths. Maintains that thought, theories, and concepts are instruments for solving practical problems 

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92

instrumentalism

what philosophy is this?

  • Geocentric Model of the Earth and Farming Practices

    • The geocentric model of the earth in its previous state and various forms was able to predict seasons. This is enough knowledge for farmers to use its (geocentric model) prediction for their agricultural needs. The truth of whether the earth is the center, or the sun is the center of our planetary system is irrelevant to the farmer. 

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93

instrumentalism

what philosophy is this?

  • Grades and the Current Educational System. 

    • The truth on whether grades measures skills and proficiency are irrelevant. What is important is that the system of grading allows teachers and the educational system to control of behavior of the student population 

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94

paul feyerabend

created the epistemological anarchism

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95

paul feyerabend

[epistemological anarchism] critiqued the idea that there is method to doing science. The growth of knowledge may not be necessarily be rooted in the scientific enterprise. 

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paul feyerabend

[epistemological anarchism] Argued that there are no universally valid methodological rules for scientific inquiry 

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epistemological anarchism

[paul feyerabend]

  • holds that there are no useful and exception-free methodological rules governing the progress of science or the growth of knowledge.

  • holds that the idea of the operation of science by fixed, universal rules is unrealistic, pernicious, and detrimental to science itself. 

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98

epistemological anarchism

what philosophy is this?

  • Ideas that surprisingly came out of nowhere. (i.e., not from scientific method, etc.)

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99

epistemological anarchism

what philosophy is this?

  • The best way to create an encyclopedia is not by hiring the best staff for the right amount of money, but by letting random people write articles for free.

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100

epistemological anarchism

what philosophy is this?

  • The behavior of particles at very small distances is probabilistic.

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