Ocular Fluids

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Is water nonpolar or polar

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1

Is water nonpolar or polar

polar

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2

What does the polar property of water allow it to do?

solubilize simple and complex molecules (proteins)

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3

Solubilization in water

weak interactions between the water and solute molecules

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4

What are the weak interactions that are observed in water?

  • hydrogen bonds

  • ionic bonds

  • van deer waals forces

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5

How does oxygen affect electrons

it pulls oxygen towards it, very electronegative

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6

ionic bonds

involves electrostatic attraction between 2 ionic species that are oppositely charged

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7

Van Der Waals forces

attraction involving neutral molecules in gases, liquids and solids

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8

Hydrogen bonds

a IMF that is present between hydrogen and a second EN molecule

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9

Water has the ability to __ with __ atoms

  1. associate

  2. charged

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10

In solvation, what element of water would surround Na+?

Oxygen

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11

In solvation, what element of water would surround Cl-?

Hydrogen

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12

When water associated with other polar molecules, what can be observed?

hydrogen bonding

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13

When water is fluid, are hydrogen bonds permanent?

No, constantly made and broken

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14

When water is frozen, are hydrogen bonds permanent?

Yes, this gives ice its ordered structure as it expands

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15

Are hydrogen bonds between water and protein permanent?

No, they are weak and often break

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16

Number of hydrogen bones formed between a protein and water is…?

High

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17

What is the equation of pH

pH = -log [H+]

([H+] = hydrogen concentration)

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18

Why must pH be tightly controlled?

preserving tissue structure and cell viability

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19

What happens to a cell if pH is too high or too low?

Apoptosis - programmed cell death

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20

What is a buffer system?

reaction system that maintains pH in a certain range

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21

What is hydrogen ion concentration (pH) controlled by?

partial ionization of weak electrolytes

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22

What are the 3 types of buffer systems?

  1. phosphate

  2. bicarbonate

  3. protein

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23

How is pH measured in fluids?

pH meter

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24

How is pH measured mathematically?

Henderson-Hasselbach equation

<p>Henderson-Hasselbach equation</p>
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25

What is the Henderson-Hasselbach equation?

knowt flashcard image
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26

What is a weak electrolyte?

A weak acid that does not fully dissociate in water

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27

What is a dissociation constant?

How much a weak electrolyte ionizes

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28

What is the equation for calculation a weak electrolyte’s dissociation constant?

knowt flashcard image
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29

How do you solve for pKa?

pKa = -log [Ka]

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30

What does a pKa value represent?

It is equivalent to the pH value of a solution when it is 50% ionized

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31

Buffer capacity

how much acid or base can be added to the buffer for it to still maintain its intended pH

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32

Range of buffer

the range of which the buffer can neutralize an added acid or base

<p>the range of which the buffer can neutralize an added acid or base</p>
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33

What is the range of a buffer system dependent on?

pKa

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34

what does log [salt]/[acid] represent?

log of the ration of the ionized anion to the non ionized acid of the weak electrolyte

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35

What is the equation for a phosphate buffer?

knowt flashcard image
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36

What is the most common buffer present within cells?

phosphate buffer

<p>phosphate buffer</p>
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37
<p>What is the pKa and buffer range of a <strong>phosphate buffer?</strong></p>

What is the pKa and buffer range of a phosphate buffer?

  • pKa = 6.86

  • range of: 5.86-7.86

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38

What is the equation for a bicarbonate buffer?

knowt flashcard image
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39

Why is a bicarbonate buffer more complex?

CO2 can be removed with expired air

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40

What can your breathing influence?

  • HCO3-/H2CO3 ration

    • extracellular pH of blood and ocular fluids

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41

What can happen when you are hyperventilating?

respiratory alkalosis, blood pH can raise to 7.9

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42

What is the equation of a protein buffer

knowt flashcard image
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43

Why are protein buffers important?

They are present both inside and outside of cells

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44

Ionizable groups n proteins have __ pKa values

altered

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45

prediction of exact buffering tendencies and capacities of proteins are __

difficult

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46

Ocular fluids include:

  1. aqueous fluids

  2. vitreous

  3. precorneal tears

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47

What two blood vessels make the major circle of iris?

  1. anterior ciliary artery

  2. branch of LPCA

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48

What vein is draining the blood from the eye?

vortex veins

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49

What are the ocular physiological functions of blood

  1. nourishment and removal of waste components of ocular cells

  2. a source of generation for IOP

  3. a source of information of aqueous and vitreous fluid

  4. homeostasis of retinal functions

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50

What is the pH of blood?

7.4, (can vary from 7.33-7.45)

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51

Gases carried in the blood

  1. oxygen

  2. nitrogen

  3. CO2

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52

Partial pressure of O2 in Ocular capillary bed

only 50mmHg

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53

Partial pressure of O2 in Arterial blood

83-108mmHg

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54

Partial pressure of CO2 in venous blood

38-50mmHg

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55

Albumin

Protein that carries water-insoluble components

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56

Calcium

Soluble ion that is responsible for: blood clotting, enzyme activation, hormone activity and muscle contraction

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57

Cholesterol

Lipid that is not soluble in blood

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58

Globulin

Water-soluble protein involved in immunological functions

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59

Glucose

Water-soluble sugar that has great importance as a nutrient

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60

Hemoglobin

Protein that carries O2 to cells

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61

Phosphate

Water-soluble, important for phosphate buffer, protein function and cellular energy

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62

Potassium

Principal cation of intracellular fluid, important for enzyme function

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63

Triglycerides

lipid class, not soluble in blood

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64

Aqueous humor

a controlled filtrate of blood produced by ciliary body (non-pigmented ciliary epithelium)

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65

What drains aqueous humor from the AC?

episcleral veins

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66

What is the importance of aqueous humor?

  • only source of nourishment for cells of corneal endothelium and epithelium

  • stroma keratocytes

  • lens

  • source of antioxidants

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67

Processes involved in aqueous humor production

  • diffusion

  • ultrafiltration

  • active secretion

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68

Does aqueous humor have RBCs?

NO, it is a filtrate of blood

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69

What does aqueous humor give rise to in the eye?

IOP, which maintains the shape of the eye

  • it also protects to some extent from the physical shock

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70

How is aqueous humor different from blood?

  1. decreased protein component, no cellular components

    1. reduced buffering capacity due to this

  2. ascorbic acid concentration is higher

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71

Why is aqueous humor still able to maintain pH even though it has a decreased buffering capacity?

due to comparable amounts of phosphate and bicarbonate

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72

Vitreous humor

a mixture of fluid and gel

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73

How much of vitreous is water?

98%

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74

What are the ratios of gel/fluid initially, and with age?

  1. Initially: 80%gel/20%fluid

  2. With age: 40%gel/60%fluid

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75

Describe the gel portion of vitreous humor

a stiff, semi-rigid precipitate having collagens and proteoglycans

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76

What causes a retinal detachment to occur?

  1. increase in proportion of fluid with age

  2. breakdown of type 2 collagen

  3. destabilization of retinal surface

  4. retinal detachment

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77

What causes thee viscoelasticity of the vitreous?

due to proteoglycans (hyaluronic acid) and collagens

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78

What are special properties of the vitreous gel?

capability to reform its original shape, and has some flow property

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79

Comparisons of vitreous to blood

  1. ascorbate levels are high

  2. protein and hyaluronic acid is high

  3. sodium and glucose content is lower

  4. potassium level is low

  5. vitreous is clear

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80

Precorneal tears

a film between the inside of lids and the cornea

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81

Role for tears

  • lubricating fluid

  • protects the eyes from microorganisms

  • temporary disposition for topical drugs

  • comprised of 3 layers

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82

What are the 3 layers of tear film?

  1. lipid

  2. aqueous

  3. mucin

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83

How can tears protect from Gram+ bacteria?

tears have enzyme called lysozyme

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84

Comparison of tears to blood

  1. tears are more dilute

  2. potassium concentration is 7x higher than blood

  3. ascrobate and glucose levels are lower

    1. not a source of nourishment for corneal and conjunctival cells

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85

Where does the cornea get its nutrients from?

aq. humor

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86

Where do conjunctival cells receive nourishment from?

interstitial fluid and local blood supply

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87

Globulin range

2.3-3.5 gm/mL

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88

Cholesterol range

140-250 mg/100mL

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89

Glucose range

70-105 mg/100mL

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90

13-16 g/100mL

3-4.5 mg/100mL

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91

Potassium range

~ 105mmol/liter in red blood cells

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92

Triglycerides range

35-140 mg/100mL

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