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321 Terms

1

Stroop task

cognitive interference where delay in reaction time bc mismatch w stimuli

word and colour

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2

introspection

examine yourself and ur conscious thoughts and feelings

within thinking

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3

structuralism

taking a complex phenomenon and breaking it down into make makes it what it is

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4

behaviourism

human behaviour, associated learning emphasized

rejected mind (can't see it, cant study)

drawback: not understanding genesis of mental behaviour

doesn't consider motivations, moods, fears and desires

based on conditioning

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5

cognitivism

rejected notion that only behaviour should be studied

mind and processing info important

2 types: serial and parallel models

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6

serial model

step by step

if thinking was like this, processing would be very slow

(cognitivism)

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7

parallel

multiple steps happen simultaneously

(cognitivism)

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8

usage and utility

mental resources are limited, cant be aware of everything

some stuff enter some dont

(cognitivism)

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9

variability in cognition

within-subject differences: I am great with faces but not with names-> mental abilities within self

between subject differences: I might be good at faces but Robia isnt -> mental abilities differ between us

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10

flexibility

mental abilities change

ex, worse: brain damage

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11

Edwin smith papyrus

how to treat trauma back in days

open skull to relieve pressure

was this paper thing with 48 cases some w brain injury

hinted at localization

inkling that mind comes from brain and diff parts of brain do stuff

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12

cardiac hypothesis

mind comes from heart

thought brain was really insignificant and heart seen as seat of intelligence

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13

alcamaeon of croton/galen: brain hypothesis

brain is what the mind is

heart gives brain oxygen

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14

rationalism

pursuit of truth through reasoning

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15

descartes

monism/dualism

rationalism... he believed mind and brain relationship, each diff things

thought pineal gland was special bc is directly in middle of brain

thought pineal gland was the interphase between brain and soul

(don't need brain for reflexes though ac... brain can control reflexes)

rationalism incorrect

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16

neuron doctrine

rejection of Golgi's syncytium proposal

synapse and neural communication

saying brain made up of cytoplasm but the saying brain made of neutrons, separated by synapses

REALITY: brain communicates w neutrons w synapses

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17

aggregate field theory

1/2 competition theories of brain organization

thinking all brain works together to do what's done

no specialization

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18

localization of function

1/2 competition theories of brain organization

different parts specialize in certain things

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19

phrenology

wrong

think bigger area, more associated w ability

not true bc lets say u become more moral, nothing is growing bc skull

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20

brodman's map

mapped cerebral cortex

just shows layering arrangement

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21

evidence for localization

Paul broca, wernicke

john Jackson (Jacksonian march, said aboral mental state may result from structural brain damage)

Enfield (brain mapping w electrocortical stimulation of brain surface -> electrode pass current to brain area and see what happens

Phineas Gage(iron rod), patient hm(removed temporal lobe, anterograde amnesia)

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22

Alexander luria

whole-person view of brain injury

brain areas work together: NETWORKS

see brain injury as person

stressed not all brain areas are equal

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23

non-human studies

animal lesion study to see effect on behaviour

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24

functional imaging techniques

reveal physiological activity in the brain. e.g. PET,SPECT, EEG, fMRI

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25

human lesion studies

look at brains with brain injuries and see how this alternation affects function

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26

cognition

models how thinking works

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27

neuroscience

allows us to see how brain gives rise to thinking

which parts of brain are used when problem solving

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28

developmental cognitive neuroscience

how mind and brain change over time

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29

social cog neuroscience

how and why we're social and do what we do

self-monitoring in social situations

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30

cultural cognitive neuroscience

display rules and emotion regulation

tries to understand the effect culture has on brain function

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31

clinical cognitive neuro

understanding changes in mind and the brain associated w psychological illness

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32

rehabilitation cognitive neuro

how brain repairs after trauma

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33

glial cells

hold brain together but also communicative properties:

astrocytes, microglial cells, Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes

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34

astrocytes

incredibly flexible

blood-brain barrier

respond to brain damage

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35

microglial cells

eat dying/dead neurons so they dont become a problem

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36

Schwann/oligodendrocytes

Myelinate/insulate axon: helps faster neurotransmission

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motorneurons

send motor signals

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38

sensory neurons

absorb sensory information

(chemoreceptors absorb taste)

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39

interneurons

can communication all kinds of info

what u see, decision u make, how valuable something is

most neurons

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40

dendrites

receive signals

always on cell body

branch off of neurons

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41

axon

path down which a signal is transmitted

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42

terminal

terminal

SENDS signals

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43

how does neuron send signal

cell membrane = semi permeable

certain ions in some pushed out

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44

selective permeability

A property of a plasma membrane that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.

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number of signals sent =

more intense stimulus

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46

signal down axon

moves left to right to the terminal

signal travels passively through cell

saltation: jumping between nodes

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47

multiple sclerosis

autoimmune disorder where immune system attacks myelin

if occurs in motorfibers: might have difficulty in movement

somatosensory fibers: develops numbness in hand

temporal lobe: degraded memory

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48

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

a rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks motor neurons responsible for controlling voluntary muscles causing weakened muscle

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49

stroke

abnormal interrupting of blood supply to nervous system

ischemic strokes, caused by blockage/blocking of brain artery

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50

dopamine

made in substantial nigra and ventral segmental area

help in higher-level cognition : help keep stuff in mind time to time, working memory

voluntary movement

reward/reinforcement learning

dysfunction levels:

parkinsons, psychotic thoughts/behaviour, addiction

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51

norepinephrine

produced in locus coeruleus

linked to mental arousal: attention

memory

mental flexibility (switch gears)

mood

dysfunction levels: alzheimers, bipolar, depression, visuspatial neglect

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52

serotonin

made in raphe nucleus

strongly linked to mood

low levels associated with depression

can affect gut

psychotic thoughts/behaviour

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53

acetylcholine

made in basal forebrain

linked with sensory processing: making sense of sensory stuff ur taking in

movement: PNS, dysfunctional levels associated w weakness

ACH IN BRAIN NOTHING TO DO W MOVEMENT

alzheimers: each low

myasthenia graves: movement issue in PHS

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54

Psychopharmacology

heroes-dodson curve

suggests optimal level of neurotransmitters of where ideal neurotransmitter would be for best memory, mood, etc.

as you move away from peak, deviate from optimal functioning

changing one neurotransmitter can change other ones

consider prescriptions, observations etc

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55

human spinal cord

carries nerves in body

motor function and touch function

MOTOR GOES DOWN TO CONTROL BODY

TOUCH GOING UP to brain

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56

Corticospinal tract

motor fiber

controls voluntary movement

starts in frontal lobes

if someone has stroke on left, right side will feel weak

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57

MAJOR SOMATOSENSORY TRACTS

1) medial lemniscus tract

- proprioception: knowing where ur limbs are, located in muscle fibers, if didn't have proprioception, would just fall in dark bc dont know how body is oriented

- touch: how whether you have a soft touch vs hard touch somewhere : pain and temperature

2) lateral spinothalamic tract

- carry sensory info to brain

- pain receptor, temperature receptor

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58

Dorsal ___

carries touch info

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59

ventral ___

motor

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60

dermatomes

different parts of body controlled by different parts of spinal cord nerves

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61

frontal lobe

boss of brain

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62

parietal lobe

touch and attention

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occipital lobe

vision

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64

temporal lobe (Genera)

hearing, speech and memory

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65

primary sensory cortex

regions of the cerebral cortex that initially process information from the senses

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66

motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

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67

association cortex

essential for more complex stuff (language represented and retrieved problems solved)

cerebral cortex outside the primary areas

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68

limbic system

neural system (including the hippocampus (memory), amygdala (fear processing emotion), and hypothalamus(hormone), thalamus (sensory relay station)) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives.

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69

cerebellum

where more neurons w huge dendrites are

damage can cause speech damage and slur

alcohol inhibits cerebellum function

important w VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT (posture, speech, coordination)

receive info and consolidate information to smooth actions

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70

protecting brain

skull, dura, pia mater, meninges

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71

Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)

3d Xray

pass radiation, some parts absorb some dont

use absorption rate to reconstruct and can take slices

good for emergency medicine

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72

smri

brain structure (structural magnetic resonance imaging) (finer image than CT)

detailed image in fast time

like big magnet, atoms line up in magnetic field, use radio frequency pulses that send signals to knock atoms out of alignment

increasing magnet = increase resolution

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73

voxel

volumetric pixel that make up brain space

helps us understand what brain areas are for

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74

lesion overlap technique

30 people with brain injury cant form memory

take smri with all 30 and lay 30 images over and take average and see where the most common overlap of brain damage is for this group

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75

diffusion tension imaging (DTI)

measures the diffusion of water in the brain tissue, permitting the imaging of the white matter tracts

structural

track water w fractional anisotropy

get info with mri

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76

EEG

functional analysis

electrodes on scalp get electrical activity

good temporal rolsution but weak spatial resolution

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77

computing event related potentials

50-60 trails increases your confidence

event related potential (ERP)= ex: do memory retrieval task 50 times, take 50 waves from each electrode and take average

weak spatial resolution

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78

ECoG

EEG directly on brain

high spatial resolution

low temporal resolution

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79

PET scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

gamma ray is measured and goes into computer to make image

high temporal

low spatial

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80

fmri

a form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain

neuromuscular coupling: can measure changes in blood flow to activity

B lood

O xygenated

L evel

D ependent

good spatial, weak temporal

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81

subtraction method

stimulus - control state = activity due to stimulus

scan 40-50 times

average

subtract

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82

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

the use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regions

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83

fundamentals of experimental design

1) why are we studying, what will learning more help us understanding the brain/help others?

2) literature definition (Ex: working memory is ability to keep info in mind from moment to moment)

3) operational definition

(Ex: how will working memory be set up in ur experiment-> rmbr location of flashing lights on screen)

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84

transduction

take life info and turn it into neural signal in eyes

perception makes sense of neural (transduced) signals

ex: captures light info from environment

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85

pupil

The opening through which light enters the eye

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86

lens

Focuses light onto retina

refracts light

sensory and photo receptors located here

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87

retina

Light sensitive layer of the eye; contains rods and cones

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88

cones

color receptors

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rods

Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray

dim lighting and motion

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fovea

Contains the highest concentration of cones

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91

info consolidated by____

neurons

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92

interprelation

dont have holes in vision bc use what other eye is seeing to fill gaps

(blind spot where dont have photoreceptors where optic nerve leaves eye)

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93

blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there

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94

LGN

after right side and left side cross at optic chasm, stops at LGC, then radiated back to occipital cortex

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95

primary visual cortex

the region of the occipital lobe whose primary input is from the visual system

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96

damage to right thalamus would =

left visual field impaired

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97

retinotopic mapping

An arrangement of neurons in the visual system whereby signals from retinal ganglion cells with receptive fields that are next to each other on the retina travel to neurons that are next to each other in each visual area of the brain

map at back of eye on brain

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98

scotoma

blind spot in vision

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99

bilateral damage to visual cortex

blindness

eyes sense light and stuff

but first unit in occipital lobe damaged so cortical blindness

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100

hemianopsia

blindness in half of the visual field of one or both eyes

(can be bc m.s. and myelin attacked)

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