Exam 2

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genetic background

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1

genetic background

the term “ancestry” in forensic anthropology refers to a person’s ___

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2

false

True or false: Races represent different evolutionary lineages.

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3

Carolus Linnaeus

anthropologist who likened racial groups to the animals originating from the same regions

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4

true

True or false: There is more variation within than between racial groups.

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5

false

True or false: Living phenotype can be determined from skeletal remains if some soft tissue is present.

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6

isotope

Stable ___ profiles found in body tissues can predict geographic origin, region of birth, long-term residence, travel history, etc.

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7

white

Which ancestry group(s) has/have projecting noses?

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8

black, asian

Which ancestry group(s) has/have nonprojecting noses?

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9

white

The root of the nose (nasion) belonging to which ancestral type is high and narrow?

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10

black

The root of the nose (nasion) belonging to which ancestral type is low and rounded?

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11

asian

The root of the nose (nasion) belonging to which ancestral type is low and ridged?

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12

white

Which ancestral group has a high nasal bridge?

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13

black, asian

Which ancestral groups have a low nasal bridge?

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14

white

Which ancestral group has a pronounced nasal spine?

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15

white

In which ancestral group is the lower border raised into a sill, forming a sharp wall?

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16

black

In which ancestral group is the lower border guttered, meaning the floor of the nose merges with the anterior maxillae?

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17

white

Which ancestral group has the narrowest nasal opening, resembling an isosceles triangle?

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18

black

Which ancestral group has the widest nasal opening, resembling an equilateral triangle?

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19

white

Which ancestral group has a straight/vertical, nonprojecting facial profile?

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20

black

Which ancestral group has a projecting facial profile?

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21

asian

Which ancestral group’s lower eye border (cheekbone-like) is projected?

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22

white, black

Which ancestral groups have a narrow face shape?

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23

asian

Which ancestral group has a wide face shape?

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24

white

Which ancestral group has angled (sadboi) eye orbits?

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25

black

Which ancestral group has rectangular eye orbits?

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26

asian

Which ancestral group has round eye orbits?

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27

white

Which ancestral group has the most pronounced browridges and muscle striations on the skull?

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28

asian

Which ancestral group exhibits the most complex cranial sutures?

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29

Wormian bones

accessory bones in the lambdoid suture

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30

asian

Which ancestral group is most likely to exhibit Wormian bones?

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31

black

Which ancestral group exhibits a slight concavity in the postcoronal area (behind the bregma) which flattens the sagittal contour?

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32

white

Dental crowding is most likely in which ancestral group?

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33

white

Which ancestral group has the smallest jaw?

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34

black

Which ancestral group has the largest jaw?

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35

white

Which ancestral group has a parabolic (almost V-shaped) dental arch of the upper jaw?

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36

black

Which ancestral group has a hyperbolic (rectangular or U-shaped) dental arch of the upper jaw?

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37

asian

Which ancestral group has a rounded dental arch of the upper jaw?

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38

asian

Which ancestral group has shovel-shaped incisors (almost hollowed out in the middle)?

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39

black

Which ancestral group is most likely to exhibit Cusp 7 and the Bushman Canine?

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40

black

Which ancestral group has a straight femoral shaft?

(as opposed to exhibiting anterior curvature)

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41

white

Heavy/thick/massive postcranial bones with heavy muscle markings indicate ___ ancestry

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42

black

Light/thin postcranial bones with slight muscle marking indicate ___ ancestry

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43

white

Large joint surfaces on long bones indicate ___ ancestry

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44

black

Slender joint surfaces on long bones with small articular heads & joint surfaces indicate ___ ancestry

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45

white

a wide and rugged pelvis indicates ___ ancestry

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46

black

a high and narrow pelvis indicates ___ ancestry

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47

shallow; deep

The lumbar curve of the vertebral column is ___ in whites and ___ in blacks

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48

black

Of what ancestry is this skull?

<p>Of what ancestry is this skull?</p>
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49

asian

Of what ancestry is this skull?

<p>Of what ancestry is this skull?</p>
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50

white

Of what ancestry is this skull?

<p>Of what ancestry is this skull?</p>
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51

asian

Of what ancestry is this skull?

<p>Of what ancestry is this skull?</p>
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52

white

Of what ancestry is this skull?

<p>Of what ancestry is this skull?</p>
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53

black

Of what ancestry is this skull?

<p>Of what ancestry is this skull?</p>
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54

female

The (male/female) pelvis is wider.

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55

male

The (male/female) subpubic angle is angular and v-shaped

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56

female

The (male/female) subpubic angle is rounded.

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57

obturator foramen

opening in the pelvis encircled by the ilium, ischium, and pubis

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58

male

The (male/female) obturator foramen resembles a flattened isosceles triangle.

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59

female

The (male/female) obturator foramen resembles an equilateral triangle.

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60

pelvic inlet

space enclosed by os coxae and sacrum when viewed superiorly

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61

male

The (male/female) pelvic inlet is heart-shaped.

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62

female

The (male/female) pelvic inlet is oblong.

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63

males

The greater sciatic notch is narrower in (males/females).

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64

females

The sacrum is short and broad in (males/females)

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65

males

The sacrum is long and narrow in (males/females).

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66

females

Only (males/females) have the ventral arc.

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67

females

Only (males/females) have a subpubic concavity.

<p>Only (males/females) have a subpubic concavity.</p>
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68

females

The preauricular sulcus is more pronounced in (males/females).

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69

preauricular sulcus

groove of bone in the ilium helpful for distinguishing sex

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70

childbirth

The preauricular sulcus is deepened in women following ___

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71

heavy lifting

The preauricular sulcus may appear in men who perform ___ over long periods of time.

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72

males

The acetabulum is larger in (males/females).

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73

male

The (male/female) skull is more robust.

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74

males

(Males/females) have more sloping foreheads.

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75

male

The occipital protuberance and nuchal crest are more pronounced on the (male/female) skull.

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76

males

The upper interior of the eye socket, also called the supraorbital margin, is rounded in (males/females).

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77

males

(Males/females) have a 90 degree angle to the mandible and ascending ramus.

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78

males

(Males/females) have larger, broader maxillae.

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79

females

(Males/females) have a slanted angle to the mandible and ascending ramus.

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80

females

(Males/females) have a narrower, longer nasal cavity.

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81

females

(Males/females) have high foreheads.

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82

females

(Males/females) have a pointed mental eminence.

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83

just born

How old was this individual at death?

<p>How old was this individual at death?</p>
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84

second year

All fontanelles (gaps in skull sutures) close by the end of the ___

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85

25

After approximately what age have the majority of epiphyses fused in the skeleton?

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86

2-12 months

Mastoid fontanelle fusing time

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87

2 months

Posterior fontanelle fusing time

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88

2 years

Anterior fontanelle fusing time

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89

3 months

Sphenoidal fontanelle fusing time

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90

metopic suture

suture which initially separates the right and left halves of the frontal bone

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91

second year

The right and left halves of the mandible fuse by the end of the ___

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92

10

Cranial fusions occur prior to age ___

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93

tooth formation/eruption

Most reliable method for aging subadults

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94

10

When do epiphyses BEGIN to fuse in the skeleton?

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95

young

The pubic symphysis of a (young/middle/older) adult exhibits ridges separated by furrows running transversely across its surface.

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96

middle

The pubic symphysis of a (young/middle/older) adult is flat and smooth with fine texture.

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97

older

The pubic symphysis of a (young/middle/older) adult is granular, pitted, and eroded.

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98

b

Which individual is older?

<p>Which individual is older?</p>
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99

young

The auricular surface of a (young/middle/older) adult is coarse-grained and granular.

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100

middle

The auricular surface of a (young/middle/older) adult is fine-grained and dense.

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