ANS 150 Exam 1

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What is the average number of calories a person needs every day?

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Animal Importance, Animal Behavior, and Digestive Physiology and Practical Nutrition

117 Terms

1

What is the average number of calories a person needs every day?

2350

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2

How many grams of protein does an average person need every day?

50

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3

What makes a country developed?

Meets both the total calories and total protein requirements

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4

What makes a country developing?

Meets one of the nutritional requirements

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5

What makes a country underdeveloped?

Does not meet either of the nutritional requirements

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6

List three things related to the nutrient intake of the "average person" in a country when its socioeconomic status goes from being underdeveloped to being developed.

Total caloric and protein intake increases and the proportion of nutrients from animal sources increases

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7

What happened to WHO's estimates of undernourished people from 2005 through this past year?

Although the number of undernourished people fluctuated throughout the years, there was no net change from 2005 through 2020

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8

On a worldwide basis, what do most people eat to meet their protein needs?

Cereals

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9

What research projects were mice used for?

Cystic fibrosis and breast cancer

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10

What research projects were pigs at NCSU used for?

Retinitis pigmentosa, diabetes, stroke prevention, and human infant milk formula

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11

What is economic income factor?

Estimates the economic value of businesses that are needed to support production

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12

When is someone considered to be in a food desert?

They live more than a mile away from a grocery store without transportation

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13

What is gross domestic income?

The total income generated in an economy by the production of final goods and services during a particular period

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14

Which food animals have the most gross domestic income?

Cattle and calves

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15

What two basic criteria define animal behaviors?

behavioral mechanism and biological need

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16

What is a biological need?

what the animal gains from the behavior

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17

What is a behavioral mechanism?

how an animal knows or learns to perform a specific behavior

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18

What is the future income tren for companion animals?

Expected to have 7-10% yearly growth and increase in high-end products and services such as home delivery services and pet superstores

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19

What is the future income tren for food and fiber animals?

Depends on the difference between population and production, whether a country can send these products to areas that need them and can pay for them

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20

Why do we study animal behavior?

They provide signals related to animal well being, biological changes, and management conditions

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21

What are the animal behavioral mechanisms?

Instinct, habituation, conditioning, trial and error, reasoning, and imprinting

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22

What is the instinct mechanism?

behaviors that are inherently present at birth, controlled by biological changes in animals, also called reflexes

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23

Instinct mechanism example?

When females become sexually receptive, the males naturally react

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24

What is the imprinting mechanism?

Young animals bonding with their caretaker, chemicals and/or other signals are involved, partly instinctive, partly learned

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25

Imprinting mechanism example?

A calf immediately connecting with it’s mother

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26

What is a habituation mechanism?

lack of response to repeated stimulus, learned behavior

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27

Habituation mechanism example?

Squirrels in urban areas become use to people and do not run

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28

What is the conditioning mechanism?

association between a behavioral response and a given stimulus, stimulus can be positive or negative, another animal can provide the stimulus

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29

Conditioning mechanism example?

Dogs beginning to associate the doorbell with people coming into the house

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30

What is the trial and error mechanism?

trying various responses to a stimulus until a reward is given, animal seeks out stimulus

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31

What is the most common way behaviors are learned?

trial and error

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32

Trial and error mechanism example?

Chickens searching for food in different locations until they find it

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33

What is the reasoning mechanism?

ability to respond correctly to a stimulus the first time it is applied

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34

Reasoning mechanism example?

Elephants wanted to get inside an electrified fence so they pushed a tree on top of it

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35

What are the biological needs?

Sexual, caregiving, care soliciting, agnostic/social, and feeding

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36

What is a sexual behavior?

concerns the propagation of species, broadcasts sexual receptivity, prepares for birth and lactation, and includes pheromones

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37

Sexual behavior example?

chemicals being emitted in the air which indicate sexual receptivity

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38

What are caregiving behaviors?

originates from parents, involves protection, nourishment, and training young

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39

Caregiving behavior example?

deer keeping their babies hidden while they explore new places

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40

What is a care soliciting behavior?

originates from young and injured or disabled mature animals, signifies assistance

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41

Care soliciting behavior example?

A baby calling out to its mom when its lost

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42

What is an agnostic behavior?

behaviors associated with the fight or flight syndrome, social hierarchy, and interactions with other animals

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43

Agnostic behavior example?

A puppy playing with other animals

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44

What is a feeding behavior?

associated with obtaining food, most common in predation or foraging animals in order to meet nutrient needs

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45

Feed behavior example?

Cows grazing or wolves hunting

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46

How do you classify behaviors?

by mechanism then biological need

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47

What is the anatomical approach to intelligence?

the correlation between intelligence and brain weight to body weight ratio

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48

What is the vocal approach to intelligence?

the more/complex vocalization = smarter

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49

What is the learning rate approach to intelligence?

comparing learning rates of species exposed to the same task or test

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50

How do behaviorists view learning.

as a dynamic process that is continuous

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51

What is ethology?

the study of behavioral science, attempts to classify how animals respond to various situations

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52

What’s the biggest problem with studying animal behavior?

humans often interpret situations and responses of animals with human biases

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53

What are the two ways to classify animals digestively?

digestive anatomy and food preferences

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54

Monogastric examples

humans, pigs, rabbits, horses, and birds

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55

Ruminant examples

cattle, sheep, goats, and deer

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56

What are cereals?

the seed portion of plants, usually high energy with low fiber and no cellulose

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57

What are rhouages or forages?

usually the leaves or stems of plants, low energy with high fiber and contains cellulose/lignin

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58

What is digestion?

the process by which feed particles are reduced to molecules so that they can enter the body

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59

What are the three modes of digestion?

mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic

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60

What is mechanical digestion?

chewing and breakdown of food

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61

What is chemical digestion?

acidic breakdown of food

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62

What is enzymatic digestion?

biological cleavage of food

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63

What is absorption?

process by which molecules are transported from the digestive tract, through intestinal cells, and enter the vascular or lymph systems

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64

What are the two types of absorption?

passive diffusion and active transport

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65

What is passive diffusion?

molecules enter body without the expenditure of energy

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66

What is active transport?

molecules are transported into the body against a concentration gradient which requires energy

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67

Approximately _____ of family units in the U.S. have at least one pet.

62%

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68

Human health industry primarily uses animals in 2 ways:

research and therapy

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69

Homeopathy:

natural or alternative treatment of medical problems (like acupuncture instead of drugs)

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70

Retrospective Studies:

the variable of interest occurs before the population is assigned to groups or treatments

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71

Prospective studies:

the population is assigned to groups or treatments first and then the variable of interest is measured

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72

Two common ways to evaluate economic importance are...

gross income generated and economic impact factor

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73

Future trends for companion animals project _____ yearly growth

7-10%

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74

What is a strength of measuring intelligence through vocalizations?

It's innate and not something that can be manipulated by humans

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75

What is a weakness to using vocalizations to measure intelligence?

Prey are less inclined to speak than predators due to risk of being hunted

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76

Comparison of learning strength

Animals have to learn the same challenge

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77

Comparison of learning weakness

We assume all test participants value the reward for completing the challenge the same. Predators are also programmed to hunt while prey are programmed to hide

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78

When an animal learns via conditioning, the process is as follows:

acquisition (reinforcement), extinction, spontaneous recovery

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79

Anthropomorphism

giving inanimate objects human qualities

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80

Monogastrics

stomach has one compartment

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81

What’s unique about ruminants?

Stomach has four compartments

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82

Classify each animal by digestive anatomy and food preference.

  • Dog

  • Pig

  • Horse

  • Cattle

monogastric carnivore, monogastric omnivore, monogastric herbivore, ruminant herbivore

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83

What happens in the mouth?

Mechanical reduction of feed/particle size by chewing. Saliva of some species contains amylase (enzymatic)

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84

What does the esophagus do?

Transports food from mouth to stomach via peristalsis

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85

what happens in a monogastric stomach?

HCl secretion assists with protein breakdown (chemical). Enzymatic digestion takes place as well. Mechanical activity and anatomical folds help increase surface area of chyme

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86

Chyme

mixture of partially digested food with stomach secretions

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87

What happens in the monogastric small intestine?

Major site of enzymatic digestion in monogastric carnivores and omnivores and nutrient absorption

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88

Where and what does the cecum do in monogastrics?

Blind pouch between junction of small and large intestines which contains microbes and protozoa that break down complex sugars and cellulose

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89

What happens in the large intestine?

Major site of reabsorption, concentrates undigested feed

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90

What does the rectum and anal sphincter do?

thick muscular tube, extinction of solid undigested materials

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91

Ruminants Stomach is divided into 4 compartments the ____, ____, _____, ____

Reticulum, Rumen, Omasum, Abomasum

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92

What does the reticulum do?

Assists with fertilization (enzymatic); contracts to push food back up esophagus to mouth (chewing cud)

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93

What is the rumen?

Huge sack containing microbes which digests feed ENZYMATICALLY and converts it into needed products

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94

What happens in the omasum?

Has many folds (plies) that assist with MECHANICAL digestion

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95

What happens in the abomasum?

Same functions as stomach in non-ruminants, MECHANICAL, CHEMICAL, AND ENZYMATIC digestion

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96

Proventriculus is the same but birds have ____ cecum

2

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97

What is the crop?

modification of the esophagus where feed can be stored and limited enzymatic digestion by microbes takes place

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98

In the proventriculus...

HCl and gastric enzymes digest feed but there is limited mixing due to gastric movements, CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC digestion

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99

Feed in birds goes from proventriculus to _____

gizzard

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100

What happens in the gizzard?

site where MECHANICAL digestion takes place to reduce particle size

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