unit 1: neuro anatomy, physio, chem

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reductionism

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229 Terms

1

reductionism

idea that complex systems can be understood by looking at individual parts

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2

consciousness

awareness of internal/external world

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3

invasive

tissue sample analysis at cellular level

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4

non invasive

imaging methods at broader functioning level

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5

histology

study of tissues by staining and labeling

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6

behavioral neuroscience

study of human behavior arising from bodily processes

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nissl staining

fills all cell bodies bc binds to mRNA; highlights all cell bodies in the region

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8

Golgi staining

fills cells completely revealing details including projections

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9

autoradiography

detection of radioactive compounds/drugs in the brain

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10

immunohistochemistry (ICH)

detection of antibodies raised against a particular protein

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11

in situ hybridization

probes for nucleic acid to detect RNA or DNA only of genes that are expressed in that neuron

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12

tract tracers

form of histology that shows neuronal connection

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13

computerized axial tomography (CAT/CT scan)

uses x-ray to show structure

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14

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

uses powerful magnet to align protons to show fine details in structure

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15

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

uses oscillating magnetic fields to detect changes in brain activity/metabolism

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positron emission tomography

detection of radioactive chemicals (radiolabeled glucose) to observe brain activity

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17

neuronal electrophysiology

study of electrical properties in the nervous system

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18

types of EEG

scalp, depth, field, intra cellular

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19

nerve

collection of axons bundled together; group of neurons

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20

central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal cord

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21

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

everything but brain and spinal cord

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22

somatic nervous system

nerves that interconnect the brain/major muscles/sensory systems

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23

vertebrae

bones that protect spinal cord

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24

meninges

3 layers of membranes that protect spinal cord

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25

cranial nerves function

receive sensory input, control movement above neck, enervate viscera

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26

enervate the viscera

connects to the nerves of internal organs

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27

autonomic nervous system

nerves that connect to the viscera and contribute to autopilot body functions

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sympathetic nervous system

prepare for action

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29

parasympathetic nervous system

rest and digest

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30

horizonal plane

top view

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31

sagittal plane

side view of 1 hemisphere

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32

coronal plane

front view

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33

ipsilateral

same side

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34

contralateral

opposite side

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35

afferent

brings info to

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36

efferent

sends info out

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37

dorsal

back

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38

ventral

belly/front

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39

gray matter

neuronal cell bodies for info processing

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40

white matter

projections for transmission of info

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gyrus

curves of brain tissues

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42

sulcus

crevices in between brain tissues

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43

basal ganglia function

plays critical role in control of movement

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44

basal ganglia parts

caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus

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thalamus

takes incoming/outgoing sensory info and sends it to correct place; post office

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46

hypothalamus

homeostatic control center that bridges neuro/endocrine systems

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47

tectum

sensory processing

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48

tectum parts

superior colliculus, inferior colliculus

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49

superior colliculus

processes visual info

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50

inferior colliculus

processes sound info

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51

tegmentum parts

substantia nigra, periaqueductal gray, reticular formation

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substantia nigra

movement; involved in dopamine deficiency in Parkinsonā€™s

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53

periaqueductal gray

pain perception

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54

reticular formation

sleep

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55

cerebellum

motion coordination; cognition and learning

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56

brainstem parts

pons, medulla

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pons

sensory and motor nuclei

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medulla

autonomic function (heartbeat, breathing)

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Sylvian fissure

runs along top of temporal lobe

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60

central sulcus

divides frontal/parietal lobes

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61

limbic system parts

amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, olfactory bulb, cingulate gyrus

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limbic system function

involved in memory and emotional regulation

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amygdala

emotional regulation

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64

hippocampus

memory

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65

olfactory bulb

sense of smell

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cingulate gyrus

cognitive function, attention

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cortical columns

form vertical processing units

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corpus callosum

network of connections across hemispheres

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69

dura mater

tough, most outermost meninge

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70

arachnoid layer

middle web-like structure filled w/ fluid

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71

pia mater

delicate, most innermost layer

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72

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges that causes swelling

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73

meningiomas

benign tumors that grow on meninges

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74

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

fluid that surrounds the brain in the subarachnoid space

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75

choroid plexus

specialized membrane that filters blood to produce CSF

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hydrocephalus

water on the brain

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hydrocephalus cause

blockage of ventricles cause fluid buildup

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glymphatic system function

protects brain from infection, maintains optimal fluid levels, removes waste products

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79

brain requires 2% of tissue but -

20% of energy

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80

carotid arteries

supply brain w/ blood through neck

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81

vertebral arteries

supply brain w/ blood along spine

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82

blood-brain barrier

capillaries in the brain highly resistant to the passage of molecules into the neurons they supply

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83

hemorrhagic stroke

rupture in blood vessel/artery allows blood to leak into the brain

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84

ischemic stroke

clots or other debris prevent blood from reaching a region of the brain

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85

number of neurons

90 billion

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86

circuits

made of neurons that underlie all forms of behavior

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87

glial cells/glia

support cell for neurons

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Neuron Doctrine

1 neurons and other brain cells are independent 2 info is transmitted from neurons across synapses

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synapse

gaps between cells

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90

input zone

where neurons collect/process info from environment or other cells

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cell body

info comes in and is processed

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dendritic spines function

axon terminal of previous cell forms synapse here

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integration zone

where the decision to produce a neural signal is made

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conduction zone

where info can be electrically transmitted over great distances

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axon collaterals

axon splits before terminals

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output zone

where neuron transmits info to other cells

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axon terminals

in communication w/ dendritic spines of next neuron

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multipolar neurons

have many dendrites coming out of cell body and a single axon; most common type of neuron

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99

bipolar neurons

single dendrite and single axon; common in sensory systems

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unipolar/monopolar neurons

have single process that branches in 2 directions after leaving cell body; transmit touch info from body to spinal cord

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