dinosaurs exam 2 review

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saurischians

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1

saurischians

-blade like serrated teeth -promaxillary fenestra -intramandibular joint -enlarged hands with increased grasping abilities -bipedal -birdlike feet -lightly built theropod skulls -feathers -pneumatic vertebrae

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2

carnosaurs

-meat lizard -large with short necks and small forelimbs

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3

coelurosaurs

-hollow tail lizard -smaller with longer necks and longer forelimbs

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4

herrerasaurs

-one of the most primitive dinosaurs -caused saurischian and ornithischian clades to split -was originally thought to be a theropod

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5

theropods

-blade like serrated teeth -promaxillary -intramandibular joint -enlarged hands -predatory -all bipedal -tyrannosaurus, velociraptor, allosaurus -many were feathered -birdlike feet -sharp claws -lightly built skulls

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6

coelurosauria

-closest related to birds -enlarged brain, tridactyl hand with long 2nd and 3rd digits, feathers, hinge-like ankles

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7

furcula

-fused collar bones -strengthen skeleton & hold wings

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8

feathered theropods

-archaeopteryx & yutyrannus -insulation/display rather than flight

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9

ceratosaurs

-six or more sacral vertebrae -very deep coracoids -small forelimbs -4 fingers -limusaurus, aucasaurus, abelisaurus

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10

carnosaurs

-extra opening in maxillary -very large nasal bones -allosaurus & giganotosaurus

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11

therizinosaurs

-small skulls -long necks -huge claws -short legs

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12

oviraptorids

-toothless jaws -short snouts -boxy skulls -large fenestra in mandible -crest of sponge-like bone on tip of snout

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13

prosauropoda

-small teeth with large serrations (leaf shaped teeth) -short necks - not as long as sauropods -jaw articulation offset -poorly pneumatized vertebrae -obligate quadrupeds -can be bipedal (primitive) -no sharp claws -plant eaters -long necks go side to side -teeth look like iguanas

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14

difference between sauropods and prosauropods

-prosauropods have small 5th digit -should vertebrae is used for naming because skulls are too fragile

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15

diplodocus

-only teeth in front, possibly a beak

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16

camarasaurus

-rounded nose unlike Brachiosaurus

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17

brachiosaurus

-enlarged nostrils above the eye -backwards L shape -longer humerus than femur -dip in premaxilla

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18

shunosaurus

-teeth facing forward -no dip in premaxilla unlike the brachiosaurus

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19

brontosaurus

-actually an apatosaurus with the gead of a camarasaurus - has been fixed

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20

sauropod long necks

-allows feeding over wide arc -robbing vertebrae from back -adding extra vertebrae (early embryonic development) -elongating individual vertebrae

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21

pneumatic vertebrae

-added air so it was lighter -keeps necks strong but light -feed with extended necks

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22

smaller skulls

longer necks

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23

diplodocus could not raise head above shoulders

-necks were straight but heads were angled down, necks were not flexible -good for side to side

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24

high browser

-longer humerus than femur, reaching into trees to feecd from branches

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25

grazers

-no grasses, likely ferns -low energy to graze on the ground -longer femur than humerus

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26

ornithischia

-self sharpening teeth -feathers -scales -cheeks -ridges in maxilla and dentary -longest lived dinosaur -middle jurassic to end cretaceous

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27

dental batteries

-teeth stackes on each other in sockets -constantly had teeth, not a big deal to lose

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28

neornithischia

-self-sharpening teeth -thick enamel on outside, thin inside

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29

bipeds

-walks on 2 legs -much shorter tibia/fibula -how the head is anchored

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30

facultative biped

-walks on 4 but can on 2 for mating/eating -head anchored more back (prosauropods)

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31

iguanodon

-spikey thumb claw -opposable pinky finger with 6 bones to grasp things with -3 fingers to walk on like hooves

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32

hadrosaurine

-heavily built -wide snouts -dental batteries -enlarged nares -extra motion in jaw

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33

lambeosaurine

-crested skulls (impacted by age & sex) -relatively lightly built -narrower snouts -dental batteries -extra motion in jaw

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34

hadrosaurid skulls

-diastema: gap between beak/premaxilla teeth and back teeth -there so the tongue can bring food from the cheek to the mouth -cheeks: there to catch the food that falls out of the teeth during grinding -extra skull joints: allows teeth on maxilla to move back and forth -better grinds food -beaks: broad with no teeth

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35

lambeosaurine tubes and crests

-display and sound

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36

cheeks

-ornithischians -ridges on skull above teeth is where muscles would have connected

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37

beak shape

-wider beak = grazer -narrow beak = browsers -use beaks to clip vegetation before chewing

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38

thyreophorans

-stegosauria & ankylosauria -armore & dermal ossicles

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39

stegosaurid

-long, narrow skull -standard ornithischian beaks -rows of large spikes or plates along back -late jurassic is stegosaurus

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40

huyanosaurus

-middle jurassic -most primitive stegosaurid --combination of spikes and plates

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41

dermal ossicles

-located within the skin, covered with keratinous sheath, in life they were covered by blood vessles (in grooves)

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42

plates of stegosaurus

-arrangement: 2 separate rows (staggered) -display & protection

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43

stegosaurs & ankylosaurs

-they evolved at around the same time but ankylosaurs were around for longer -skull shape

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44

nodosauridae

-long skulls -large projection on scapula -nodosaurs have elongated snouts and no club on their tail

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45

ankylosauridae

-short, wide skull, club tail -triangular head -hornlets on skull -complex nasal chambers -tail club made of derived ossicles

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46

ceratopsians

-big crest

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47

pachycephalosaurs

-dome skull

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48

marginocephalia

-shelf on back of skull -herbivores -late cretaceous -north america and asia - no link between southern & northern continents

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49

bipedal marginocephalians

-some were bipedal because their skulls were too heavy

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50

ceratopsia

-neomorph - bone in front of nasal -jugals (cheek bones) flair laterally & have a horn coming out of it

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51

psittacosaurus

-bipedal, small frill, quills/bristles on tail, skin & color pattern preserved, upper body is darker than underbody, most accurate reconstruction of any dinosaur, cloaca was described but insides were not preserved

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52

protoceratops

-larger frill than psittacosaurus but smaller than ceratopsids, no skull horns, 120 million years old, ontogeny series & sexual dimorphism, quadrupedal

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53

chasmosaurines

-long skull, short nasal horn, long orbital horns

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54

pachyrhinosaurines

-short skull, long nasal horn, short orbital horns

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55

ceratopsian frills

-thermal control, display, defense

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56

pachycephalosaurs head butting

-damaged skulls

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57

epioccipital bones

-edge of the frill that fused to the back of the skull

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58

cheeks on marginocephalia

-dental battery convergent with hadrosaurs

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59

undomed, partially domed, & fully domed in some taxa?

-john homer & others noted that dome growth is an ontogeny series -they grow a bigger dome on their head and grow into their species

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60

marginocephalians in herds

-giant bone bed - flooding event preserved thousands of individuals

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61

why aren't ceratopsians on every continent?

-plate tectonics. north america and asia only were connected

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62

pangaea evidence

-look like they fit together -can connect ice caps -related fossils on every continent

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63

plate tectonics

-based on seafloor spreading -the earth's crust is made of plates -plates collide and separate -plates are destroyed and recycled -ocean floor is relatively young

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64

continental drift

-based on continents -continents slide along ocean floor -happens because of earth's rotation & tidal pull -ocean floor is millions of years old

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65

crust created

-oceanic ridges -as plates get consumed they separate from each other. as they separate, magma comes up & creates a new crust

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66

crust consumed

-oceanic trenches -the denser plate goes under the other plate creating a trench. the plate continually goes under until it reaches the mantle & melts

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67

seafloor spreading evidence

-magnetic poles switching -stripes of differing magnetic poles on the ocean floor

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68

driving force of continental drift

-earth's rotation, tidal pull

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69

driving force of plate tectonics

-magma covection within earth's mantle

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70

rejection of wegener's theory (continental drift)

-ideas of continents plowing through solid rock & ocean was unheard of -proposed driving forces "implausible" -he was a meteorologist, not geologist -he was german -didn't have evidence

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71

plate tectonics & organisms

-volcanoes -mountains -earthquakes -organisms evolving/not depending on where they end up after shifting -same fossils on all continents

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72

plate tectonics unifying theory

-explains most geology phenomena & processes

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73

nocturnal dinosaurs

-huge eyes/scleral rings

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74

dinural dinosaurs

-small scleral rings

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75

theropods & feathers

-tail preserved in amber -could see down feathers -found feathers in sandstone -feather attachments found on bones -big dinos too - yutyrannus

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76

mononykus were probably anteaters

-only had thumb -forearms -ulna has long process to give support for tearing into ant mounds -no teeth, weak jaws, long tongue -mechanical study

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77

dinosaurs and crocs stacking in china

-big sink pit and dinos would go in looking for food & get stuck

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78

color of feathers

-pigment capsules in feathers -round = rust color -pill-shaped = black

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79

evidence of keratinous prjections

dermal ossicles

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80

likely feathered dinos

-theropods -yutyrannus -anchiornis -archaeopteryx

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81

anchiornis

-gliders, not active flyers -4-winged dinos -feathers colors, revealed by pigment capsules in feathers -looks like bacteria, but it is actually pigment capsules

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82

fleas

-10x larger than modern -22 mm long - almost an inch -preserved in amber -stuck in feathers of dinos -suggests dinos were warmblooded -40 million years ago

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83

lice

-preserved in amber -chewed on feathers -100 million years ago

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84

pterosaurs

-originated in late triassic -extinct in late cretaceous

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85

pterodactyloid

-nares and antorbital fenestra fused together (mono fenestra) -no teeth -short tail

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86

rhamphoryncoid

-have teeth -nares and antorbital fenestra are separated -long tails

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87

preservation of pterosaurs

-marine/lacustrine environments

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88

pterosaur bones crushed flat

-delicate pneumatic bones

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89

avemetatarsalian novelty

-ankle goes back & forth, not side to side

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90

walking position of pterosaurs

-quadrupedal when walking -we know because of tracks

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91

pterosaur wing structure

-wing on 4th digit -skin membrane stretched betweenbone -ossified rods to stiffen wings

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92

pterosaur skull crests

-mostly for display and sexual dimorphisms

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93

pterosaurs were endothermic

because of feathers

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94

pterosaur primitive feathers

-hair-like feathers -also had hair -down feathers -aerodynamic, keep warm

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95

permits

protects bones from poachers

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96

CAT scanning

-high resolution -bones still inside rock -doesn't destroy specimen if you mess up -minute detail

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97

mechanical extraction

-mini jackhammer -needle under microscope -likely to destroy bone

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98

naming rules

-whoever publishes on it first gets to name it -genus needs to be unique -species can be duplicate -latinized -cannot be an insult -usually related to place/person of discovery -binomial

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99

lumper

-groups genera or species into a single species

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100

splitter

-thinks most things they find are new genera or species

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