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illiad - pandarus

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illiad - pandarus


-coward as he fights with bow and arrow, fights from afar

-perspective as he notices athena fighting with diomedes

-lykaon’s son and aeneas’ comrade

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Illiad - aeneas


-good leader as pandarus calls him “counsellor of bronze-clad trojans“ showing he is heroic and respected

-cowardly as he devises an escape plan when confronting diomedes showing he is scared of dying heroicly on the battlefield

-son of aphrodite , comrade of pandarus

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illiad - glaucus


-influencial as he wears gold armour showing he could afford gold armour

-proud as he recites his family heritage with pride showing his family is worth being proud about

-son of hippolochus, ancestral guest-friend of diomedes

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illiad - diomedes


-brave as he faced aeneas and pandurus all by himself showing how confident he is to go against two people alone

-respectful/aidos as he wished glaucus good luck is battle despite the fact they are opps

-son of tydeus, athenas fav, glaucus guest-friend

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illiad - paris


-cowardly as he was “nursing anger in your heart while your friends die” he thinks his emotions will fight the war for him

-innocent “like a stable fed stallion…gallops over field” he is innocent about war as he is stable fed rather wild like how diomedes, a great warrior, is described as a wild animal

-son of priam, married to helen

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illiad - hektor


-pious as he refuses to pour libation to the gods whilst his hands were bloody from war shows how he presents himself to the gods

-loyal as he rejects helens seduction which shows he is loyal to andromache

-paris’ brother, andromache’s husband, priam and hecubas son, astaynac/scamandrios father, killer of patroclus

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illiad - andromache


-virtuous as “she rushed to the battlements in great distress and the nurse followed carrying her son“ she is actively worried about her husband

-dutiful as when hektor leaves she leaves him with strategic advice showing she knows what to prioritise

-hektors wife, mother of astynax/scamandrio, daughter of eeiton

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illiad- helen

-spartan but on the trojan side

-guilty as she calls herself a “bitch, scheming horrible creature that i am“ this means that she is to blame for this war and she is not human as not even a human would do such a selfish thing

-lustful as she tries to seduce Hektor even though she is married to Paris, not only is she married to Paris but she ran away from Menelaus.

-daughter of zeus and leda, wife of menelaus and parishe

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illiad- hecuba


-motherly as she offers hektor wine to restore him after a tiring battle

-queen, mother of paris and hektor, wife of priam``

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illiad- achilles


-brutal as he killed all 7 of andromaches brothers on the same day while they were tending to cattle

-fearful as he runs like “orions dog“ which is a star of a sign of evil brining fever on mortals, so scary his own people are scared of him

-selfish as he prays for the downfall of greece because agamemenon challenged meaning his pride is before his comerades

-friend of patroclus, father of pyrrhusill

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illiad- priam


-a caring father as he begs hektor not to face achilles alone showing that he cares about his father alot

-supplicates himself to achillies begging him to give hektors body so they can give him a proper burial

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speeches [4]

-Pandarus is angry about his arrow skills so he promises to snap it if he survives

-andromache tells hektor how she will become a greek slave if he dies

-diomedes prays to athena complaing about pandarus being a coward

-hektors speech to himself before fighting achilles

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-diomedes fighting like a river bursting its banks in winter

-diomedes as lion, trojans as sheep

-paris is a stable fed stallion

-achilled and hektor are dove and hawk

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roles of the divine : weak

diomedes wound aphrodite and tells her that compared to the other gods she should not be in the battlefield

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roles of the divine : favouritism with mortals

-aphrodite tries to take wounded aeneas from the battlefield

-athene guides diomedes spear onto patroclus face

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roles of the divine : cruel

-athene ignores the prayers and offerings of hecuba and the other trojan women offers

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achilles quote to show how strong he is -illiad

“godlike achilles“

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diomedes epic similie -illiad

“he stormed over the plain like a raging winter torrent that sweeps away the dykes in its swift flood“

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diomedes speech to athene -illiad

“let me kill this man … who wounded me with no warning“

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achilles fearful -illiad

“orion’s dog“

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achilles cinematic similie-illiad

“his armour blazing like fire of the rising sun“

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epic similie showing achilles and hektor -illiad

“he could no more escape than a fawn, that a hound starts from a mountain covert“

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aeneas fire symbolism -aeneid

“my spirit burns to gather men for battle“

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achilles to phyrrus epic similie -aeneid

“like a snake.. now gleaming with youth“

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priam sympathy premodifying adjective -aeneid

“trembling shoulders… useless shoulders“

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ABCDEF of war

A- attacking

B- beliefs

C- customs

D- defending

E- economics

F- far away [campaigns]

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What was the spartan army consisted of [3]

-Spartan citizen



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What would Spartan teens go into after completing the agoge?


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How do you get into a syssition?

Have to be voted by all the members

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Why do you have to get into a syssition? [2]

-do not get full spartan citizenship

-do not get to fight in the army

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What would happen if you do not join the army ?

You get locked down upon and status will be demoted to an inferior

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What would a syssition do when in the barracks? [2]

-live together in the barracks

-Share a a simple dinner each night

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What would a syssition do in a campaign? [2]

-share a tent

-fight alongside each other

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What was Spartan citizen rewarded? [2]

-Kleos [land to farm for money]

-helots [slaves to work the land]

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When would a spartan retire


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Who was expected to serve in the Athenian military


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Who was exempt from the Athenian military

Over 60

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How and what were the Athenian military paid?

They would be paid a basic fee from taxes and geras

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Who are the rowers

Lower class people would row as the navy would pay a decent wage

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What is a trierarch

A man who payed super tax, was seen as an honour

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How was a triremes payed for

Super tax

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Who was allowed to be a legionary soldier in Rome [2]

-Roman citizens

-some people in the empire would be given citizenship on enrolment

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how would a man be accepted to be a roman legionary soldier? [4]

-letter of recommendation from a respectable person

-examiners would examine physique

-ask profession

-medical exam

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Who set up romes first full time standing army and navy


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How would a roman legionary soldier payed

State from taxes band geras

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Salary in Roman legionary soldiers [2]

-Augustus 225 denarii

-Domitian 300 denarii

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What was similar to modern day and roman scheme

-pension scheme

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What was a legionary soldier rewarded for honourable discharge

-3000 denarii

-or land

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Who joined the roman auxiliary soldiers

Non citizens

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How much were auxiliary soldiers payed

1/3 of a legionary soldiers salary

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What were roman auxiliary soldiers rewarded at the end of their discharge

Citizenship for him and his children

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Why was the Roman Empire diverse

Auxiliary soldiers would not be allowed to serve in the province of birth so they would be relocated

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When would auxiliary soldiers be given honourable discharge

After 25 years of service

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What was the roman navy made of

Auxiliary soldiers

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<p>Bronze helmet of the Corinthian type [3]</p>

Bronze helmet of the Corinthian type [3]

-460 BCE

-to protect warrior in battle and later dedicated as a votive offering


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<p>Bronze warrior figure from Sparta [3]</p>

Bronze warrior figure from Sparta [3]

-6th cent BCE

-statuette, possibly a votive offering, toy or keepsake


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<p>Bronze statuette of a legionary soldier [3]</p>

Bronze statuette of a legionary soldier [3]

-2nd century CE

-statuette, possibly a votive offering, toy or keepsake


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How big is the phalanx

8 x 8

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Common reasons why the phalanx broke its position

-flanking attacks by other units

-loss of significant number of its members

-low level of morale could cause members to flee, breaking the orderly flows

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Quote for a good hoplite by Archilochus

A short man firmly placed upon his legs with a courageous heart not to be uprooted from the spot where he plants his legs

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How did the phalanx inflict damage on enemy soldiers

Close quarters - Swords and daggers

Mid range - end of the spears

Long range - projectiles like slingshot bullets

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How did the phalanx keep hoplites safe

Mostly covered by hoplites and projectiles are deflected

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Which position in the phalanx was the most dangerous

The corners were the most dangerous because there is no one beside them to cover the other half of their body meaning they have to be more aware of their surroundings. Being on the corner was an honourable position as it meant that you were brave

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How were Spartans equipped for war [3]

-raised to show obedience

-Learned signals

-only best soldiers got to fight at the front

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<p>The testudines formation</p>

The testudines formation

Shields would be locked together to form a wall against projectiles, the formation would move towards the enemy so they could fight at close quarters

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What was the primary weapon for romans


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Surround and starve [3]

-high wall keeps enemies out and keep population in

-a popular siege tactic was t surround the fortification preventing anyone getting in or out

-eventually the food and water would run out and they would be forced to surrender

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Over the walls / siege towers

-made of wood

-harvesting wood and carpenters

-would have wheels for accessibility, would be built on spot and have archers stand on top of the tower

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through the walls [3]

-walls and gates would be broken with rams

-once broken roman infantry men would enter city and fight hand to hand

-battering rams made of wood and metal rolled on wheels

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<p>trajan’s column [3]</p>

trajan’s column [3]


-to celebrate the roman conquest of Dacia and shows use of battering ram

-original location at central rome

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large scale devices for firing projectiles

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ballista or catapulta

like a crossbow fired bolts with high accuracy

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had a single swinging arm used for flinging rocks at the enemy

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phalanx strength [athens]

formation is tight and have to go through everyone to break formation

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phalanx weakness [athens]

if one person flees the entire formation with

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phalanx strength [sparta]

train together in rhythm

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phalanx weakness [sparta]

inefficient to manoeuvre

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throwing spears at the beginning of battle strength [roman']

initiates and intimated battle

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throwing spears at the beginning of battle weakness [roman]

one spear mean one go

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close quarters fighting in lose formation strength [roman]

allows soldiers to move to use their strength

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close quarters fighting in lose formation weakness [roman]

reliant on themselves for protection instead other

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testudo strength [roman]

-can protect against projectiles

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testudo weakness [roman]

arms can hurt form holding the shield for a long time

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siege warfare strength [roman]

strong range of attack

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siege warfare weakness [roman]

time and energy consuming

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three uses of ships in ancient Greece[3]




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athenian trireme [3]

-made of wood as it was durable

-thin build as less friction allows ship to move faster

-hypozomata as keeps tension concentration the middle so the ship does sink

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<p>lenormant trireme relief [3]</p>

lenormant trireme relief [3]


-possibly an offering or part of a structure on the athenian acropolis

-athenian acropolis

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boarding naval manoeuvres

-row close to enemy ship for soldiers to jump onto other ship and if everyone other boat was killed they got to keep the ship

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diekplous naval manoeuvres

-ramming other ship to tear it apart to sink they would sail past the enemy ship and sharply turn

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advantage of boarding technique

if successful they take the boat saving time and energy to making a buying a new ship

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disadvantage of boarding technique

could be a disadvantage if the solider fall whilst trying to jump over

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advantage of diekplous technique

can cause a ship to sink causing all their passengers and resource aboard to sink

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disadvantage of diekplous technique

if the enemy ship notices the battering ram then they will know to escape or plan a counter act as preperation

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an athenian invention so they guarded this information fiercely telling any outside was treason

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why was the athenian navy so strong [3]

-most amount of ships with 200 meaning they were outnumbered

-the hypozomata was gatekeeper so enemies could not strategize against it

-they had strategized their manoeuvres so they are well equipped

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three main naval bases in rome [3]

-forum iulii [gaul and spain]

-misenum [south-west italy]

-ravenna [north-east italy]

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who commanded a roman naval fleet


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who commanded individual roman ships


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who comanded roman ship squadrons


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