PSY 221 Adolescent Psych Exam 2

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identity achievement

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identity achievement

forging your own identity, separating from parents and bonding with peers.

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family systems theory

the process of identity achievement

everyone is changing family roles-

parents- midlife crisis

adolescents- hormonal changes

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generational gap/ dissonance

a clash between parents and children over cultural values—occurs so commonly among immigrant families that it is regarded as a normative experience

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baumrind’s parenting styles

AKA macabee and martin

authoritarian

permissive

authoritative**- the best

neglectful

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authoritarian

parent always in control, stresses obedience

child outcome- passive, less socially adapt, less self-assured

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permissive

parent pushover, child has control, think children have a predetermined outcome,

child outcome- less mature, irresponsible, more conforming

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authoritative

democratic, child has input and some control

outcome- responsible, self-assured, creative, curious, socially skilled

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traditional parental roles, 1950s

actions are more important in developing children than what you say to them

mother is indulgent, father is authoritarian

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criticisms of baumrind

unidirectional- just parenting effect on child outcome

easy to be authoritative with a compliant child

SES- low=stress obedience

high= stress curiosity, independence and ambition

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why is authoritative the best

highly demanding and responsive

engages give and take

supportive parenting = strong attachment and honesty

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differences in mothers and fathers

mothers- talk with children more, fight with children more, perceived as more controlling

fathers- rely on mother for info on kids, credited with providing kids more social competence (self worth in girls, empathy in boys)

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first born

driven to achieve, parents hover, Justin

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middle born

ignored, good negotiator, Alex

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last born

spoiled, independent (parents ignore bad beh.), Max

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family structure statistics

2/3 live with 2 parents (bio, step, or adopt.)

1/3 live with one parent

**60% of kids born to single parents and one marries by adol.

15% live in special family forms

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most harmful effects on adolescents? divorce or conflict

CONFLICT

fear of conflict is harmful, too

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effects of divorce

teens- sleeper effects and early drug/sex experimentation

decreased grades, depression

younger children- more accepting of new step parents and divorce, but not for pre-adol. girls

parents- mom decreased income, non-custodial dads see less of their children (remarry, move away)

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minimize effects of divorce by

keep changes to a minumum (Scott and Kelly)

keep arangements fluid

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foster care

higher risk in all areas; ACES

trauma, lack of stability, lack of self-esteem (no belongigns)

discharged at 18 with $500

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family reunification

the main goal of DSS, to get foster children back to living with a family member and have consistent support 18+

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Margaret mead

cultural socialization

post-figurative- traditional, teaching adults→ children

configurative- current, teaching adults and peers → children

prefigurative- technologic, children → peers

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friendship progression in adol.

school age- sex seggregated

middle school- mixed sex friend groups

HS- couple groups for those in relationships

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cliques

small group of friends, usually sex segregated

girls more likely than boys, who spend more time isolated, instability in cliques- friends come and go

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crowds

loosely based groups composed of several cliques, organized around a common theme/shared activity

brains, jocks, nerds, etc.

based on how you identify yourself, but you can be put into one by others’ stereotypes. hard to change, as it is how others view you.

more stable than cliques

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significance of crowd identity

decreases with age

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stability of cliques

girls once in a clique likely to always be in one

boys keep the same friends longer

friends change often, but not the type/crowd

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influences on friendship segregation

SES, ethnicity, age, parental influence, achievement, parental influence, home environment

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sociometric popularity

how well youre liked by others, based on social skills

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perceived popularity

how much status/privilege

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bullying

repeated, systematic attacks to harm others

starts 4-5th grade

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relational bullying

equal boys/girls

hurting peer reputation

HARD to stop

most common in HS+

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cyberbullying

not usually anonymous, same effect as face to face bullying

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mandated HS in the industrial revolution

compulsory education laws

urbanization- more city kids

immigration- to teach them how to be Americans (social control:()

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1920s- comp. HS began

taught college prep, real-world classes, family lives, and leisure (arts, productive hobbies)

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enrollment is NOT cross cultural

95% industrial countries

50% nonindustrial countries

both increasing

low in the US

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no child left behind

mandatory EOGs, grade repetition

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common core

english and math standards nationally adopted based on grade to ensure good education even if you move.

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zero tolerance policy

high punishment for drugs/alc on school grounds, no matter the amount

not proven effective

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school reform effects

all have failed, non helped the US compared to other nations

US dropout rates have decreased (now 5-8%), highest innnercity/minority youth (50% for some)

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school size

large- more variety in courses

small- one on one help and closed engagement

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class size

smaller is more important in ES, not HS

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ES-MS-

biggest decrease in acheivement

change to more teachers and from mastery to achievement learning

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tracking

good for high achievers, bad for low ones

separating kids by ability

almost impossible to switch tracks

college prep vs. vocational

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college enrollment rates

have greatly increased

women now the majority

high 90% among asian americans, 60% of black americans, 70% of white

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graduation from college

US has the lowest

60% of students graduate in 6 years

pay increase only if you get a degree

significant pay increse with MA+

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46

special education legislation

1969- recognized SLD (JFK)

1975- Education Handicapped Child Act established IEP (indiv. educ. plan)

1997-2004- Indiv. w/ Disabilities Education Act increased parental due-process rights

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how are SLD diagnosed?

IQ and DSM-V

discrepancies between IQ and achievement tests

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ID vs SLD

autism- intellectual disability

dyslexia- SLD- effects learning primarily

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IQ scores

mental age/ chron. age

mean= 100+/- 15 (standard dev.)

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defining learning disorders

neurological dysfunction, problems with input, processing, and output, irregular development patterns

NOT deafness, cultural disadvantages

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dyslexia

reading troube

indicated early by visual delays

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dyscalcula

math trouble

indicated early by visual-spatial delays

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dysgraphia

trouble writing

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treating LDs

accomadations, improving metacognition, alternate teaching strategies (Gardner)

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55

components of attention

procrastination

finishing a task

cannot quit a task

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ADHD

attention deficit hyp. dis.

4x more in boys

criteria based on school-age children, even for older/younger

hyperactivity present

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ADD

attention deficit dis.

inatentive only

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drug therapy

ADHD responds best to stimulant meds due to underarousal. raising arousal stops needs for motor movements to raise it, making kids less hyperactive

ADD responds to anti anx meds sometimes, helps with anx from missing deadlines

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misdiagnosis of ADHD

annoyed teachers, depression, allergies, toxic stress, anxiety

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best treatment of ADHD

drug therapy and behavioral management

overseen by a neurologist, not pediatrician

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environmental factors in ADD/ADHD

low birthweight, alcohol/smoking prenatal, allergies to milk/MSG, preservatives/dyes (feingold’s diet), too much sugar

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ADHD/ ADD symptoms

CHRONIC AND PERVASIVE

6 mo. + and occur across multiple settings

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63

teen working rates through history

1925- most teens except affluent, by 12-15

1940s- comp. ed. 3% of teens

1950s- turn, teens start working, extra spending money good for economy

1979- 60% work

2008- economic troubles

2019- 35% work

in non-ind countries, people start working at 15-16

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common jobs

babysitting and yard work, then restaurant and retail work

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working 20+ hrs per week

decreased school performance, increased drinking beh., inflates discretionary spending before bills, irresponsible spending habits in the future

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extracurriculars

sports (50%), band/drama/choir, clubs/honors societies

increase school performance, decrease dropout rates

deters delinquency and drug use, protects from violence

increased psych. well being

habits continue later in life- sports players stay active, those in clubs remain active in hobbies

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67

best after-school programs

promote positive youth development

competence, confidence, connection, character, caring, and compassionate

most successful when children want to be there

best when they help to set goals with high expectations and teach how to perservere in face of adversity

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technology use in adol.

90% go online every day, 25% are constantly online

9 hrs av. on media

less than 1 hr physical activity

20 minutes reading paper

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media and behavior

chicken or the egg? violence in kids or violent media?

teens choose what media they view and pay attention to

13 yo sees beer commercial, may choose to interpret it as beer is cool, or have no interest

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sex, violence, and drugs

objectifying women

200,000 violent acts seen by 18

no evidence of increased violence in kids, all correlational data

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online communication

good for friendships, social anxiety

bad for social comparisons, relationship ruminations

sexual predation decreasing

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internet addiction

salience- most important thing/ FOMO

mood change with exposure

tolerance- needing more

withdrawal

conflict

relapse

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73

autonomy

owning it, a FEELING of independence

how you think, feel, and act

begins before adolescence at terrible twos

a gradual process

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what causes autonomy in adol.?

hormonal changes- searching fro a mate and new experiences

abstract throught- multiple perspectives and thinking outside the box (piaget’s formal op)

socially- new responsibilities and increased importance of peer acceptance/away from parents

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Anna Freud and Autonomy

detachment from parents (breaking ties with them)

not really considered true, since adolescents still depend on parents for big things, but started the idea of shifting to peer acceptance

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individuation

process by which you become your own self during autonomy/adolesence

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behavioral autonomy

waiting for rewards and controlling impulses

improves during late adolescence

example- kid gets arrested-- if i tell the truth i can go home vs. i should ask for a lawyer, this could hurt me in court

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peer pressure

highest in early adolescence, influences daily choices (not big ones)

trying to fit in, more prevalent when actually with peers

some positive- good grades

authoritative parenting decreases the negative effects

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cognitive/value autonomy

developing one’s own ideas and thoughts

morals, political views, religious beliefs

often opposite of parents

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lawrence kohlberg

theory on moral development, Heinz model

student?? of Piaget

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Heinz Model

man steals drugs to save his wife, is he in the wrong?

answer about why he is or isn’t signals 2 stages of reasoning

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preconventional reasoning moral develpoment

aims to avoid punishment

Heinz is wrong if he gets caught

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conventional reasoning moral develpoment

aims to follow societal rules

Heinz is wrong because he stole and stealign is bad

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postconventional reasoning moral develpoment

universal ethical principkes

Heinz is right because he saved a life and that is most important.

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criticisms of Kolberg

only used adolescent boys; follow-up exp. have shown that girls often have different reasoning based on fairness

hasn’t generalized to real-world morals. We behave differently in the face of others.

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permissive-neglectful parenting

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permissive-indulgent parenting

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