AP Psych - Chapter 7: Cognition (copy)

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Memory

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71 Terms

1

Memory

The persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

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Encoding

  • forming a memory code

  • Need to pay attention + actually get it into your memory

  • Levels of Processing

    1. Structural

    2. Phonemic

    3. Semantic (deepest level + best)

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3

Storage

  • maintaining encoded information over time

  • Information Processing Theory

  • Sensory → Short Term → Long Term

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4

Retrieval

The process of getting information out of memory storage

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5

Structural encoding

emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus

  • Ex: if words are flashed → focus on things as how the words are printed or length

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Semantic encoding

emphasizes the meaning of verbal input; it involves thinking about the objects and actions the words represent

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Information-processing model

Proposes that information passes through 3 stages before it is stored

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Levels of processing theory

deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes

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9

Sensory memory

The immediate, very brief (fraction of a second) recording of sensory information in the memory system

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10

Iconic memory

Sensory memory of visual stimuli

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11

Echoic memory

A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli

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12

Short-term memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly (20 s), before information is stored or forgotten

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13

Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

  • Ex: list of numbers → divide numbers into years

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14

Phonemic coding

  • emphasizes what a word sounds like

  • involves naming or saying (perhaps silently) the words

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15

Mnemonic devices

  • strategies for enhancing memory

  • Memory aids; especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

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16

Long-term memory

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

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17

Episodic memory

Memories of specific events, stores in a sequential series of events (personal facts and experiences)

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18

Semantic memory

General knowledge of the world, stored as facts, meanings, or categories (not sequentially)

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19

Explicit memory

Conscious memories of facts or events

  • Ex: remembering vocabulary for a psych quiz

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20

Implicit memory

Unintentional memories that we might not even know we have

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21

Recall measures of retention

  • requires participants to reproduce information on their own without any cues

  • If you were to take a recall test on a list of twenty-five words you had memorized, you would simply be told to write down on a blank sheet of paper as many of the words as you could remember

  • Fill-in the blank

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22

Serial position effect

  • Our tendency to recall the first (primacy) and last (recency) items in a list best

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23

TIp-of-the-tongue phenomenon

forgotten information feels like it’s just out of reach

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24

Semantic network theory

Theory that states that our brain forms new memories by connecting their meaning and context with meaning already in memories

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25

State-dependent memory

What we learn in one mental state, we may remember better in that same state

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26

Constructed memory

Can report false details of a real event or might even be a recollection of an event that never occurred

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27

Retroactive interference

When new learning gets in the way of old information

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28

Proactive interference

When old learning gets in the way of new information

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29

Anterograde amnesia

The inability to form new memories

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30

Retrograde amnesia

The inability to retrieve information from one's past

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31

Overlearning

studying material beyond a pre-determined level of mastery

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32

Elizabeth Loftus

  • well known for her research on human memory + false memories

  • Misinformation effect

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Misinformation effect

memories are altered when misleading questions or statements are presented during the day → The way people/police ask questions will change the quality of recall

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Baddeley’s model of working memory

  • consists of four components

    • Phonological loop

    • Visuospatial Sketchpad

    • Central Executive

    • Episodic Buffer

  • accounts for evidence that short-term memory handles a greater variety of functions and depends on more complicated processes

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35

Phonological loop

  • represented all of short-term memory in earlier models

  • Ex: when you use recitation to temporarily hold onto a phone number

  • help us learn language and expand our vocabular

  • serves to temporarily hold verbal information

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Visuospatial Sketchpad

  • permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images

  • At work when you try to mentally rearrange the furniture in your bedroom

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Central Executive

  • controls the deployment of attention

  • switching the focus of attention and dividing attention, as needed.

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Episodic Buffer

  • a temporary, limited capacity store

  • integrating info from several sources to create a unified memory

  • serves as an interface b/w working memory and long-term memory.

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39

imagery

  • the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered

  • used to enrich encoding

  • concrete v. abstract words

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40

Pseudoforgetting

  • info is not encoded

  • Ex: penny experiment

  • usually attributable to lack of attention.

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Interference theory

  • people forget information because of competition from other material

  • environment interferes w/ brain trying to store + rmr memory

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Maintenance Rehearsal

straight repeating of information to memorize it

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43

repression

  • motivated forgetting

  • defense mechanism

  • psychoanalytic/Freudian

  • conscious can’t handle certain memories and push it down to the subconscious

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44

Encoding Specificity Principle

  • match encoding contexts of info at recall assists with retrieval

  • Ex: going back to scene of the crime to trigger memories better

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45

Declarative Memory

  • handles factual information

  • contains recollections of words, definitions, names, dates, faces, events, concepts, and ideas

  • handled by hippocampus & areas of the cortex

  • type of explicit memory

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Non-declarative memory

  • actions and skills (muscle memory)

  • Memories of skills and how to perform them

  • Little conscious awareness

  • Ex: riding a bike

  • Performance decreases if you think too much

  • Doesn’t decline much

  • Cerebellum and amygdala

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Source Monitoring

the process of making inferences about the origins of memories

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Source Monitoring error

when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source

  • Ex: you might attribute something that your roommate said to your psychology professor

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Forgetting Curve

Ebbinghaus plotted how quickly we forget

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Hindsight Bias

e tendency to mold one’s interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out

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Reality Monitoring

psychological processes by which people discriminate real from imagined events

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Destination Memory

the process of remembering to whom one has told information

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Prospective Memory

  • remembering to perform actions in the future

  • Ex: walk the dog

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Method of Loci

  • Mnemonic device

  • taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations

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Endel Tulving

subdivided declarative memory into semantic and episodic memory

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Hermann Ebbinghaus

  • published a series of insightful memory studies

  • studied himself

  • forgetting curve

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Elaboration

linking of a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding

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Dual-coding theory

memory is enhanced by forming both semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall

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decay theory

forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time

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Schema

organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event

  • Ex: diff places think of something diff when they think of high school

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Flashbulb Memories

vivid & detailed recollections of momentous events in our life

  • Ex: rmr exactly the day when 9/11

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recognition measure of retention

requires participants to select previously learned information from an array of options → have options + answers in front of them

  • Ex: multiple choice

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63

Retention

proportion of material retained (remembered)

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64

consolidation

a hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of new, unstable memories into stable, durable memory codes stored in long-term memory

  • Memories first consolidates in hippicampal region then stored + distributed to areas of cortex

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Memory Trace

a hypothetical permanent change in the nervous system brought about by memorizing something

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66

Self-referent encoding

deciding if info is personally relevant → better chance of encoding

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Conceptual hierarchy

a multilevel classification system based on common properties among items

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Transfer-appropriate processing

  • type of state-dependent memory

  • memory performance is better when the cognitive processes engaged during retrieval match the cognitive processes that were engaged when the material was encoded

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69

Long term potentiation

synaptic connections between neurons become stronger with frequent activation

  • Ex: if a mouse is placed in a pool of murky water, it will swim about until it finds a hidden platform to climb out on. With repetition, the mouse soon learns to locate the platform more quickly

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70

Retrospective memory

remembering events from the past or previously learned information

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71

Link method

forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together

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