he was born with a severe allergic reaction which made him isolated from other people
was sexually abused at a young age
had an incest relationship with her brother
thrown out of the house when she was a teenager
became a sex worker
award-winning actress and former beauty queen
first african-american to win an oscar
product of a dysfunctional family
was abused by her father
was born poor and was a victim of discrimination because she is an african-american woman
was blinded due to an accident with her brother
worked as a social worker, teacher, and lecturer
took part in the 1960s civil rights movement in mississippi
won the 1983 pulitzer prize for fiction for her novel "the color purple"
acclaimed poet and essayist
the pattern of movement or change that starts at conception and continues through the human life span.
emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence (especially during infancy), little or no change in adulthood and decline in old age.
emphasizes developmental change throughout adulthood as well as childhood.
oldest age documented.
Jeanne Louise Calment
oldest person documented.
the average number of years that a person born in a particular year can expect to live.
Development is Lifelong
no age or period dominated development
Development is Multidimensional
consists of biological, cognitice, and socioeconomic dimensions.
includes attention, memory, abstract thinking, speed of processing, information, and social intelligence.
Development is Multidirectional
some dimensions and components of dimension expand and others shrink.
Development is Plastic
plasticity means the capacity to for change
Developmental Science is Multidisciplinary
is composed of psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers.
Development is Contextual
families, schools, peer groups, churches, cities, neighborhoods, university laboratories, countries.
Normative Age-Graded Influences
includes biological processes such as puberty and menopause, sociocultural, environmental processes such as beginning formal education and retirement.
Normative History-Graded Influences
common to people of a particular generation
long term changes in genetic and cultural makeup of a population
Non-normative or Highly Individualized Life Events
unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the individual's life.
behavior, patterns, beliefs, products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation
results from the interaction of people over the years
rooted in culture heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
the root word of this word means nation
refers to a person's position within society based on occupational, education, and economic characteristics.
the psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male.
government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
shaped by values, economics, and politics
Minnesota Family Investment Program
found that an increase in the incomes of working poor parents were linked with benefits for their children - school achievement improved and behavior problems increased.
changes in the individual's physical nature
e.g. genes, development of brain, height and weight gains, changes in motor skills, hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline
changes in the individual's thought, intelligence, and language
e.g. watching a colorful mobile swinging above the crib, putting together a two-word sentence, memorizing a poem, imagining what it would like to be a movie star, and solving a crossword puzzle
changes in the individual's relationship with other people, changes in emotions and changes in personality
e.g. infant's smile in response to a parent's touch, toddler's aggressive attack on a playmate, a school-age child's development of assertiveness, adolescent's joy at the senior prom, and affection of an elderly couple
refers to a time frame in a person's life that is characterized by certain features.
conception to birth
involves continuous growth from a single cell to an organism complete with a brain and behavioral capabilities.
birth to 18-24 months
time of extreme dependence upon adults
many psychological activities such as language, symbollic thought, sensorimotor coordinatio, and social learning are just beginning
also called as the "preschool years"
learn to become more self-sufficient and to care for themselves, develop school readiness skills and spend many hours in play with peers
first grade marks the end
Middle and Late Childhood
corresponds to the elementary school years
fundamental skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic are mastered
achievement becomes a more central theme of the child's world and self-control increase.
10-12; 18-22 years
transition from childhood to early adulthood
begins with rapid physical changes - dramatic gains in height and weight, changes in body contour and development of sexual characteristics
the pursuit of independence and an identity are prominent
thought is more logical, abstractm and idealistic
20 to 30s
time of establishing personal and economic independence, career development, and for many: selecting a mate, learning to live with someone in an intimate way, starting a family and rearing children
40 to 50s
time of expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility of assisting the next generation in becoming competent, mature individuals, and of reaching and maintaining satisfaction in a career
60 to 70s
time of life review, retirement, and adjustment to new social roles involving decreasing strength and health
longest span of any period of development
childhood and adolescence.
prime adulthood; twenties to fifties.
approximately 60-79 years of age
healthier and can lead more active, productive lives
approximately 80 years and older
health and well-being decline for many individuals
is the number of years that elapsed since birth
based on the birth date
is a person's age in terms of biological health
involves knowing the functional capacities of a person's vital organs
is an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
older adults who continue to learn, flexible, motivated, and think clearly are engaging in more adaptive behaviors than their chronological age-mates who do not do these things
refers to social roles and expectations related to a person's age
consider the role of "mother" and the behaviors that accompany the roles - in predicting an adult woman's behavior, it may be more important to know that she is the mother of a 3-year-old child than to know whether she is 20 or 30 years old
is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain the phenomena and make predictions
suggests hypotheses which are specific assertions and predictions that can be tested