CSD 453 Final

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what is place?

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206 Terms

1

what is place?

location of constriction

bilabial, labiodental, linguadental, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal

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2

what is manner?

degree or type of constriction

stop, fricative, affricate, nasals, liquids, glides

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3

what is voicing?

presence or absence of VF vibration

voiced: voice is on

voiceless: voice is off

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4

PLACE

what are the bilabial consonants?

p, b, m, w

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5

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what are the labiodental consonants?

f, v

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6

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what are the linguadental/interdental consonants?

θ, ð

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7

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what are the alveolar consonants?

t, d, n, s, z, l

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8

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what are the palatal consonants?

y, r, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ

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9

PLACE

what are the velar consonants?

k, g, ŋ

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10

PLACE

what are the glottal consonants?

h, glottal stop

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11

what is the labiodental place?

upper teeth on lower lip

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12

what is the linguadental/interdental place?

tip of tongue in between upper and lower teeth

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13

what is the palatal place?

top of tongue against hard palate

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14

what is the velar place?

back of tongue against soft palate

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15

what is a stop and what are the stop consonants?

complete closure of vocal tract- air flow stops, pressure builds

p,b

t, d

k, g

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16

what is a fricative and what are the fricative consonants?

continuous sound through narrow constriction

f, v

θ, ð

s, z

ʃ, ʒ

h

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17

what is a affricate and what are the affricate consonants?

plosive with a fricative sharing same place

tʃ, dʒ

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18

what is a nasal and what are the nasal consonants?

sound that pass through nose while air is blocked from soft palate by lowering velum

m, n, ŋ

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19

what is a glide and what are the glide consonants?

semi-vowels, glide into a vowel sound

w, y

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20

what is a liquid and what are the liquid consonants?

partial closure of the mouth, vowel-like sound

l, r

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21

what are the ways consonants can be categorized?

place: labial, linguadental, etc.

manner: stop, fricative, etc.

voiced vs voiceless

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22

what is this sound: θ?

voiceless th sound

fricative, linguadental

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23

what is this sound: ð?

voiced th sound

fricative, linguadental

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24

what is this sound: ʒ?

voiced palatal fricative

beige, vision, measure

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25

what are the early 8 sounds?

p, b, m, h, w, d, n, t

by about age 3

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26

what are the middle 8 sounds?

f, v, k, g, z, s, j, ŋ

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27

what are the late 8 sounds?

l, r, ʧ, dʒ, ʃ, ʒ, θ, ð

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28

what are the types of phonological processes?

syllable structure processes

substitution processes

assimilation processes

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29

what are speech sound disorders?

umbrella term that includes errors in producing speech sounds

includes disorders in articulation, fluency and voice

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30

what is the prevalence of speech sound disorders?

about 50% of 3 to 10 year olds with a communication disorder have SSD only

about 25% of 11 to 17 year olds with a communication disorder have SSD only

slightly higher in boys

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31

what is a functional speech sound disorder?

no clear explanation for etiology

includes articulation (motor) and phonological (linguistic) disorders

not an issue of execution, planning, sensory or structural issues

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32

what is an organic speech sound disorder?

developmental or acquired etiology

motor/neurological (execution and planning), structural, sensory/perceptual (hearing impairment)

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33

what impacts functional speech sound disorders?

habit strength- making habits of producing a sound wrongly

perceptual-phonetic mismatch

environment- what they hear in environment impacts how they produce their speech sounds

psychosocial/temperament- something related to personality

receptive deficits- something related to how they are receiving and understanding speech

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34

what are reported risk factors for functional speech sound disorders?

male

family history (sibling or parents with history of therapy of SSD)

pre- and perinatal problems

low maternal education

low SES

prolonged otitis media with effusion

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35

what are examples of structural issues from an organic etiology perspective of a speech sound disorder?

cleft lip or palate, ankyloglossia (tongue tied), macroglossia, microglossia, tongue thrust, malocclusion

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36

what are examples of perceptual/sensory issues from an organic etiology perspective of a speech sound disorder?

otitis media

sensorineural loss

decreased sensory input can affect speech

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37

what are two types of motor issues from an organic perspective of a speech sound disorder?

issue with motor execution: dysarthria

slow, slurred, labored speech, weak or spastic muscles

issue with motor planning: apraxia

higher level brain function issue, searching for correct placement of articulators, distortions

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38

T/F: speech sound disorders are the most common communication disorder.

true

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39

Those with residual speech errors make up about…

1-2% of adolescents and adults

usually just one speech sound

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40

define articulators

structures that produce our speech sounds

teeth, tongue, VF, hard/soft palate, alveolar ridge

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41

define speech sound

basic unit in phonetics [f]

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42

define phoneme

basic unit in phonology /f/

changing this would change the meaning of a word

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43

define phonetic

speech sounds and how they are produced

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44

define phonemic

way in which sounds function in a language

pan for fan

/p/ is not in phonemic inventory

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45

define motor planning

instructions fed forward in syllable chucks to muscles

planning and sequencing of motor movements

second step in articulation

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46

define phonological representation

abstract representation of speech sound in brain

first step in articulation

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47

define articulation

output- speech sound production

totality of motor processes involving in planning and execution of speech

motor, physical event, phonetic, physiology

requires respiration and phonation

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48

accuracy of what affects articulation

placement, force, duration/speed

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49

define allophone

different types of the same phoneme- /p/ with aspiration vs /p/ with no aspiration

does not change the meaning of a word

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50

define minimal pair

word that if changed by 1 phoneme, it changes the meaning of the word

dog/dot, white/write, eat/ear

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51

define coda

part of a syllable that follows the nucleus vowel

fats

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52

define rhyme

nucleus + coda or just the nucleus

hat

bee

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53

define semivowel

glides (w, y)

almost like a vowel but has more closure

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54

define assimilation

when one sound becomes similar to another sound within that word or is influenced by neighboring sound

harmony process

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55

define maximal contrast

more than 2 features (place, manner, voice) different between two words

pop/posh, chop/mop

type of intervention

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56

define minimal contrast

one feature (place, manner, voice) different between two words

pat/bat, bend/mend

type of intervention

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57

define progressive assimilation

when initial sound affects final or later sound in one word

pit → pip, coat → kok

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58

define regressive assimilation

when final or later sound affects initial sound in one word

chip → pip, dog → gog

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59

how does omission and deletion apply to speech sound disorders?

specific speech sound is omitted, deleted

in phonological disorders

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60

how does substitution apply to speech sound disorders?

standard speech sound substituted for another standard speech sound

phonological disorder

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61

how do distortions apply to speech sound disorders?

nonstandard speech sound substituted for a standard speech sound

articulation disorder

lateralized /l/ for lion

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62

what are the characteristics of a delay in speech development?

small phonetic/phonemic inventory

phoneme collapse: use sounds they have for all other sounds

target-substitute relationship: pattern to their errors

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63

how does a delay apply to speech sound disorders?

speech production patterns that typically occur in younger children (2-9 years)

typical speech errors of their age

most develop typical speech development by age 6 with treatment

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64

how does a disorder apply to speech sound disorders?

child’s speech is not what is seen in typically developing children at any age

atypical phonological pattern

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65

how does a difference apply to speech sound disorders?

differences in speech attributed to cultural/linguistic/regional backgrounds

accent/dialect

gender affirming voice

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66

what is the difference between a phonetic and phonemic inventory?

phonetic: assesses articulation- if you can say the sound

phonemic: assess meaning and convey meaning- if you can use the sound correctly

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67

what is an articulation disorder?

impaired motor production of speech

mostly distortions, less often impacts speech intelligibility, relative to child’s age, how the person uses the sound

functional: related to development or learning

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68

what is a phonological disorder?

phonemic errors at phonological level that impacts language

know how to use phonemes but don’t know when or where to use them

omissions and substitutions, more often impacts speech intelligibility, error patterns that are not age appropriate, consistency in errors

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69

what is a speech sound disorder?

umbrella term that is for errors in producing speech sounds

applies to both phonological and articulation issues

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70

define intelligibility

subjective/perceptual estimate of how much a person is understood

reported as percentage of words understood in speech sample

useful to document needs for therapy and progress in therapy

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71

the first concern of parents for speech therapy usually is…

poor intelligibility

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72

what influences intelligibility?

context, rate, fluency, language difficulties, prosody, volume, proximity, familiarity, phonological patterns, dialect, listener’s hearing ability, background noise

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73

a person with a phonological disorder is usually ____ intelligible than a person with an articulation disorder.

less

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74

at 2 years old, a child should be at least what percent intelligible?

50%

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75

at 3 years old, a child should be at least what percent intelligible?

75%

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76

at 4 years old, a child should be at least what percent intelligible?

near 100%

generally concerned at less than 75%

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77

how is intelligibility measured?

reported as percentage of words understood in speech sample

count words understood and divide by total number of words

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78

what is severity?

qualitative judgment made by clinician that focuses most on speech production and takes into account how the client is impacted in terms of quality of life

not always related to intelligibility

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79

how is severity associated with age and sound errors?

child may be compared to other kids their age and sex to determine a severity rating

7 year old with 4 SSD errors vs 4 year old with 4 SSD errors

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80

what impacts severity rating?

client perspective

quality of life

number of sound errors

number of error patterns

accuracy of productions

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81

what percentage is an error consistent?

40% of the time

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82

how is severity related to articulation and phonological disorders?

both include a severity rating

phonological disorders usually more severe because it impacts intelligibility the most

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83

how is severity categorical?

categories: mild, moderate, severe

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84

what are the characteristics of a mild SSD?

mostly distortions and substitutions

<p>mostly distortions and substitutions</p>
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85

what are the characteristics of a moderate SSD?

whole classes of sound issues, distortions, might omit sounds, change syllable structure

context and familiarity helpful

<p>whole classes of sound issues, distortions, might omit sounds, change syllable structure</p><p>context and familiarity helpful</p>
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86

what are the characteristics of a severe SSD?

deletions, substitutions, syllable structure changes, use gestures to supplement and are frustrated with communication

<p>deletions, substitutions, syllable structure changes, use gestures to supplement and are frustrated with communication</p>
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87

how is severity measured?

PCC: percent consonants correct

CC / # correct + incorrect x 100

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88

describe a person with an articulation disorder (Dodd)

primarily distortions, few sound errors, consistent and phonetic

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89

describe a person with a phonological delay (Dodd)

typical phonological error patterns beyond expected age

consistent errors in imitation, words, conversation

no clearly defined etiology

usually no residual errors with treatment

about 50% preschoolers

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90

what are typical error patterns for a student with phonological delay? (dodd)

final consonant deletion, cluster reduction, fronting, weak syllable deletion, stopping, voicing

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91

what are Dodd’s categories?

artic disorder, phonological delay, consistent deviant phonological disorder, inconsistent deviant phonological disorder

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92

describe a person with consistent deviant phonological disorder (Dodd)

atypical phonological error patterns: backing of stops, initial consonant deletion, fricatives for stops, vowel insertion, /s/ for all fricatives, extensive assimilation

consistent

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93

describe a person with inconsistent deviant phonological disorder (Dodd)

atypical phonological error patterns

inconsistent

different errors on same target words

12%

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94

what is the Shriberg classification system?

normalized, speech delay, motor speech disorders, residual speech errors

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95

what is the normalized category of shriberg?

9 years +

students who had history of speech sound errors and they don’t have errors anymore

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96

what is the speech delay category of shriberg?

3-9 years

atypical phonological development compared to peers

substitutions, omissions, deletions

low intelligibility, high frequency of errors

can achieve normal speech production with treatment

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97

what are the possible etiologies of a speech delay according to shriberg?

genetics: family history

otitis media: auditory perceptual processing

developmental psychosocial involvement

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98

what is the motor speech disorders category of shriberg?

3-9 years

distortions, omissions, substitutions

CAS, developmental dysarthria

more likely to have residual errors

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99

what is the residual speech errors category of shriberg?

6 years +

typical errors: sibilant /s/ and rhotic /r/ distortions

no language/literacy influence

1% of adolescents and adults

nonmedical, non genetic reason for these errors

treatment wasn’t effective

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100

what are the phonological characteristics of a consonant?

narrowing or closing of the vocal tract

can be pre, post or intervocalic

help form syllable shape

need vowels

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