PSYCH SEM 1 (copy)

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Willhelm Wundt

1 / 563

Tags and Description

564 Terms

1

Willhelm Wundt

-Father or Psych -Opened 1st ever psych lab

  • 1st topic of study was consciousness

New cards
2

G. Stanley Hall

-opened first american psych lab

  • founded APA

New cards
3

Edward Titchener

Student of Wilhelm Wundt; founder of Structuralist school of psychology.

New cards
4

William James

founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment

New cards
5

Mary Whiton Calkins

First female president of the APA Was supposed to get PHD but could not because of gender barriers

New cards
6

Margaret Floy Washburn

First female to be awarded a PhD in psychology; 2nd president of the APA (1921)

New cards
7

Leta Stetter Hollingworth

One of the first psychologists to focus on child development and on women's issues

New cards
8

Sigmund Freud

Psychoanalytical approach

New cards
9

Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner

Behavioral Approach

New cards
10

Rogers and Maslow

Humanistic Approach

New cards
11

Pschology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

New cards
12

Nature vs. Nurture

Nature: Genetics (innate) Nurture: Environmental influences (parenting)

New cards
13

Empiricism

Knowledge acquired through observation, gathering/analyzing data which serves as evidence to support

New cards
14

Willhelm Wundt

"father of psych" set up first psych lab 1st topic of study was consciousness

New cards
15

G. Stanley Hall

Opened first american psych lab Founded APA (American Psychological Association)

New cards
16

Edward Titchener

Studied structuralism (Introspection)

New cards
17

Structuralism

Examined the elements/pieces of the conscious experience Inward-looking/introspection/self reflection

New cards
18

William James

Studied Functionalism

New cards
19

Functionalism

Interested in the purpose/use/value of the conscious experience Focused more on application Asks the question "Why?"

New cards
20

Gestalt Psychology

Emphasizes our tendencies to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes

New cards
21

Mary Whiton Calkins

First Female president of the APA Would have been first woman to have PHD in psych but could not because of gender

New cards
22

Margaret Floy Washburn

First female to earn PHD in psych Second female APA president

New cards
23

Leta Stetter Hollingworth

All of work was with gifted children and was of the first people to do this

New cards
24

Psychoanalytic Approach(Freud)

Unconscious urges/impulses and or repressed memories of early childhood trauma that influence behavior

New cards
25

Behavioral Approach (Pavlov, Watson, Skinner)

Behavior is learned through observation/rewards/punishments and making associations

New cards
26

Humanistic approach (Roger, Maslow)

Behavior is explained using the following beliefs: Humans are inherently good; we are striving to reach our potential; we each have a unique perception and self concept; we all have free-will

New cards
27

Cognitive Approach

Mental processes such as thoughts, memory, decision making, problem-solving, etc. which all influence behavior

New cards
28

Biological Approach

Brain chemistry and structure; genetics; memories etc. which influence behavior

New cards
29

Sociocultural approach

Societal/cultural factors influence behavior (e.g norms/expectations from family, peers, media, gender, religion, ethnicity, etc.)

New cards
30

Individualist vs Collectivist cultures

Individualist- focus on taking care of self and own goals Collectivist- good of group, setting aside yourself for good of family

New cards
31

Evolutionary Approach

Adaptive value of behavior which explains behavior (e.g survival of the fittest; passing on genes)

New cards
32

Positive Psychology

Tries to better understand positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human nature

New cards
33

Eclecticism

Combining more than one approach to explain behavior (Biopsychosocial mental health)

New cards
34

Applied Psychology

Using known psychological theories and principles to solve everyday, practical problems like a therapist

New cards
35

Clinical Psychology

Concerned with diagnosis and treatment of mental illness

New cards
36

Developmental Psychology

Looks at human development across the lifespan (anything regarding children)

New cards
37

Social Psychology

focuses on interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior like conformity or attraction

New cards
38

Educational Psychology

How people learn the best practices for teaching Looks at teaching style, motivation, and achievement testing

New cards
39

Health Psychology

How do we promote and maintain physical health and healthy behaviors like work-life balance

New cards
40

Experimental Psychology

Are the ones running experiments, doing research, and gathering data

New cards
41

Cognitive Psychology

Mental processes like memory, thought, and really understanding memory

New cards
42

Psychometrics & Quantitative

Developing Psychological test and analyze statistical data

New cards
43

Personality Psychology

Understand and explain personality traits Like why personalities are different Like the difference between introverts and extroverts

New cards
44

Counseling Psychology

Therapists that are not focused on diagnosing and treating mental illnesses such as marriage counseling

New cards
45

Industrial/organization (I/O) Psychology

Blends business and technology They look at companies and they observe then offer suggestions

New cards
46

Human Factors Psychology

Explores how people and machines interact and how physical environment can be made safe/easy to use

New cards
47

Informed consent

Participants must know that they are involved in research and give there consent or permission

New cards
48

Deception

If the participants are deceived in any way about the future of the study, the deception must not be so extreme as to invalidate informed consent

New cards
49

Confidentiality/anonymity

This identifies and actions of participants must not be revealed in any way by the researcher

New cards
50

Risk/harm

participants cannot be placed at significant mental or physical risk. This clause requires interpretation by the review board.

New cards
51

Debriefing

Participants must be told of purpose of study and provided with ways to contact researchers about results

New cards
52

Hypothesis

A testable, educated prediction about the relationship between two variables (Before research)

New cards
53

Theory

A tentative explanation of behavior/phenomenon (After research)

New cards
54

Operational Definitions

Defining variables in specific, measurable ways for scientific testing

New cards
55

Correlation Research

Investigating the relationship between variables (NOT CAUSE-EFFECT)

New cards
56

Naturalistic Observation

Observing Behavior in a natural setting without influence

New cards
57

Reactivity

Subjects alter their behavior because they know they are being observed

New cards
58

Demand Characteristics

Acting in a way we think research expects/wants us to act

New cards
59

Screw-You Effect

Acting opposite of what we think researcher expects/wants

New cards
60

Observer Bias

Subjectivity;how the researcher interprets what they see

New cards
61

Case Studies

Intense examination of one person, small group, or unique situation using a variety of methods including surveys and interviews. Allows us to investigate rare behavior/occurrences are topics that are impossible/unethical to test in other ways

New cards
62

Surveys

Questionaire used to learn about participants opinions, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors

New cards
63

Framing

How questions are worded can affect responses

New cards
64

Experiment/Experimental Design

-Experiments are only research that isolates cause and effect -Controlled Setting

  • Trying to Explain Behavior

New cards
65

Population

What larger group or category of people are you researching (Target group of interest)

New cards
66

Sample

Members of population who are chosen to participate in research (Smaller than population)

New cards
67

Random Sample

Every member in population has an equally likely chance of being chosen to participate in research

New cards
68

Representative Sample

When demographics of the sample are proportional to demographics of population (generalized to the population)

New cards
69

Sampling bias

When a sample is not representative of target population

New cards
70

Independent Variable (IV)

Factor is manipulated by experimenter and the affect of this is being studied

New cards
71

Dependent Variable

Factor that may change in response to independent variable, in psych usually behavior or mental process

New cards
72

Experimental group

Group that receives the "Special Treatment"

New cards
73

Control Group

Comparison group that do not receive the "Special Treatment"

New cards
74

Extraneuous/Confounding Variables

Any variables other than the IV that may influence DV. Can also be known as a third variable that is directly linked to IV and DV like personality.

New cards
75

Quasi Experiment

Experimental design that does NOT use random sampling or assignment because it is impossible or unethical

New cards
76

Replication

Replication of a study; helps to determine whether results are reliable (consistent)

New cards
77

Meta-Analysis

Statistical methods for combining multiple studies on a topic (compare/contrast what has been found thus far by other researchers)

New cards
78

Placebo Effect

When participants don't know they are getting placebo and they think they are getting treatment and they have affects as if they are having it

New cards
79

Regressing Towards the mean

The tendency for initial extremely high or extremely low scores to become more moderate/ closer to mean over time

New cards
80

Response set

A tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of questions

New cards
81

Halo Response

When someones overall evaluation of a person influences more scientific findings

New cards
82

Single-Blind Design

Only participants unaware of what group they are in/which variable they recieve

New cards
83

Experimenter bias

The influence of an experimenters observation results

New cards
84

Double-Blind Design

Both participants and researchers are unaware of which group participants are in

New cards
85

Measures of central tendency:

Mean- Average (sum of scores divided by number of scores) Median- Middle of numbers when in numerical order Mode- Most frequent score

New cards
86

Measures of Dispersion:

Range: Highest through lowest Score Standard deviation: Average distance between each score and mean of data set (helps show how clustered or spread out scores are)

New cards
87

Positive Correlation

The 2 variables head in the same direction

New cards
88

Negative correlation

2 variables going in opposite directions

New cards
89

Illusory Correlation

Seeing a relationship between two variables when no such relationship exists

New cards
90

Correlation Coefficient

Statistical number that measures the relationship between two variables, combines directions of relationship + and - and with strength of relationship (0.0-1.0)

New cards
91

Statistical Significance (inferential)

-Statistically significant= confident that IV causes changes in DV

  • Statistically insignificant- we are not confident that IV caused the change to DV (could have been due to chance)

New cards
92

Dendrites

Receive messages from other cells

New cards
93

Soma

Cell Body, which maintains the health of a neuron

New cards
94

Axon

passes messages away from the cell body to the other neurons, muscles or glands

New cards
95

Terminal buttons

form junctions with other cells

New cards
96

Action potential

electrical signal traveling down the axon

New cards
97

myelin sheath

fatty substance that covers the axon, some of the neurons, and helps speed natural impulses

New cards
98

Synapse

space/gap between neurons

New cards
99

Glial Cells

Support neurons (stimulate growth, repair damage, and keep them in place)

New cards
100

Neurotransmitters & Receptors

these are chemical messages released by the presynaptic neuron and these neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on postsynaptic neuron like a "lock and key"

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 146 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(239)
note Note
studied byStudied by 137 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 122 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 244 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard97 terms
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard76 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard225 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)