World History Final Exam Study Guide

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King Gilgamesh is super strong 2/3 god, grew mean & savage, goddess Aruru made Endiku to withstand him, Endiku meets him, they fight, become friends, Gilgamesh invites him on a journey, they prepare for the cedar forest, go to the forest and battle Humbaba, defeat him, goes back to Uruk, Gilgamesh offends Anu, Anu’s dad send Bull of Heaven, Endiku helps defeat it, Endiku has a dream, gods decide he should die, Gilgamesh is sad, he journeys through the mountains, goes to find Uta- napishi to learn how to escape death, He tells him the flood story about the gods & why they made him immortal, Gilgamesh later talks to Endiku’s ghost, & asks about the afterlife

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9th Grade

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King Gilgamesh is super strong 2/3 god, grew mean & savage, goddess Aruru made Endiku to withstand him, Endiku meets him, they fight, become friends, Gilgamesh invites him on a journey, they prepare for the cedar forest, go to the forest and battle Humbaba, defeat him, goes back to Uruk, Gilgamesh offends Anu, Anu’s dad send Bull of Heaven, Endiku helps defeat it, Endiku has a dream, gods decide he should die, Gilgamesh is sad, he journeys through the mountains, goes to find Uta- napishi to learn how to escape death, He tells him the flood story about the gods & why they made him immortal, Gilgamesh later talks to Endiku’s ghost, & asks about the afterlife

Epic of Gilgamesh

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2

Sumerian Writing

Cuneiform- wedge shaped writing on clay

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3

Sumerian Temples

Stepped towers called ziggurats

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4

Modern day Mesopotamia

Iraq

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5

Hammurabi’s Importance

Hammurabi’s Law Code- world’s first legal code

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6

Nebuchadnezzar’s Accomplishments

rebuilt Babylon, hanging gardens of Babylon, Ishtar’s gate, Astronomy & Astrology

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7

King Solomon’s temple purpose

to hold to the Arc of the covenant

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8

Mesopotamia means…

Land between Rivers

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9

Egyptian written language

Hieroglyphics

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10

Rosetta stone

written in 3 languages, found by Napoleon Bonaparte’s team, Jean Champollion deciphered it

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11

River flooded and provided rich soil (silt)

Nile

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12

King Tut

Boy King, found by Howard Carter, Near intact royal tomb found in the Valley of the Kings

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13

Egyptians did this to the body to show they were obsessed with the afterlife

Mummification

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14

Tall structure- symbol to show pharaoh’s right to rule & connection to the divine

Obelisks

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15

Egyptian writing is done on…

Papyrus

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16

Book of Spells to help someone to the afterlife

Book of the Dead

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17

India ‘s main cities along the Indus River

Mohenjo Daro & Harappa

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18

India’s most important rivers

Indus & Ganges

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19

Nomadic group that invaded India

aryans

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Aryan Language & writing system

Sanskrit

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21

Rajas

Aryan Princes

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22

Linked China to Mesopotamia

Silk road

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23

Duty to put family needs above your own

Filial Piety

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Analects

Confucius’s teachings are written in this book

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25

Priestly Caste

Brahmans

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Lowest caste with dirty jobs

Untouchables

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A system of social categories that determines a person’s job and place in society

Caste system

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Reincarnation

The soul is reborn after death

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29

Karma

Person’s actions that determine how they will be reborn

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Dharma

Person’s duty in life

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Helps achieve Nirvana

Eight fold path (Buddism) & meditation

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Ultimate goal is Buddism

Eliminate desire- achieve nirvana

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Characters

chinese writing

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34

Emperor Shi Huang Di practiced this government system

Legalism

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35

No interference

Daoism

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36

Relationships are important

Confucianism

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37

Epic poems about trojan war

Iliad and the Odyssey

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38

Odysseus, Agamemnon, Menelaus, Hector, Helen, Achilles, Paris, Priam

Characters of the Iliad and the Odyssey

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39

Spartan Battle formation

Phalanx

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40

People make decisions and influence the government

Direct Democracy

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Defeated at the battle of Marathon

Persia

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Won the battle of Thermopylae between Xerxes and Leonidas

Persia (300 Spartans killed)

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Ostracism

Writing on pottery to banish someone for 10 years

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Led the Persians at the Battle of Thermopylae

Xerxes

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War between Sparta and Athens

Peloponnesian War (lasted 27 years)

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Philosopher

someone who seeks wisdom or answers

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Most important Greek poet

Homer

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Patricains

Rich Romans (High Class)

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punic wars between

carthage & rome

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50

rome gained control of this after the first punic war

sicily

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marched elephants across the alps during second punic wars

hannibal

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rome does this to carthage and its people after third punic wars

burns the city, salts the earth, sells people into slavery

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mosaics were made of…

tile

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alliance between 3 men

triumvirate

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People in first triumvirate

julius caesar, pompey, crassus

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assassinates caesar

marcus brutus

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time of peace ushered by octavian

pax romana

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first roman emperor to convert to christianity

constantine

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59

what happens to western roman empire in 476 AD

falls due to germanic tribes invading

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60

christianity based on Jesus’s teachings

New religion that emerges in rome

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61

sacred text of judaism

torah

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founder of judaism

abraham

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most important city in judaism

jerusalem

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laws given to moses

10 commandments

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Sacred text of christianity

bible

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gabriel

angel who announced jesus birth

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Another name for savior

messiah

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68

According to Catholicism who is the first pope

st peter

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69

sacred text of islam?

Quorum

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70

founder of islam

muhammmed

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first caliph after muhammmed

Abu Bakr

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House of worship

mosque

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islam name for god

allah

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disagreement between sunni and shiites

who the rightful successor of muhammed is

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Shahada

declaration of faith

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salat

prayer (5 times a day)

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Zakat

charity

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sawm

fasting (ramadan)

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hajj

journey to mecca

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animals berbers used to cross desert

camels

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King of Mali who visited mecca (really rich)

mansa musa

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82

type of trade in west africa

silent trade- gold for salt

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83

mix of african and arab culture

swahili

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civilization in andes, chile, peru

incas

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85

calendar

most accurate in the world at that time, mayans made it

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86

game played by all meso american tribes

pok a tok

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87

who created city in the middle of lake texcoco

aztecs

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mexico city

tenochtitlan today

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the sign the aztecs were looking for to build their city

eagle on a cactus holding a snake

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90

Conquered aztecs

Hernan cortez

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conquered incas

Francisco pizarro

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92

knotted ropes of inca writing

quipu

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chaimpanas

floating gardens aztecs used to make more farmland

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leader of the aztecs when they were conquered

moctezume

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95

continent the incas live on

south america

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96

At age 7 Spartan boys attend…

Military School

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Ruler that seizes by force with support of the people

Tyrant

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Alexander’s process of bringing Greek culture to the world

Hellenistic period

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Mark Antony rules out of this country and has an alliance with…

Egypt, Cleopatra

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Most famous Islam holiday

Ramadan

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