GoPo Mash of Vocabs 1-3

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Thomas Hobbes

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165 Terms

1

Thomas Hobbes

A thinker who believed that humans were naturally bad/evil and needed a strong, buff, central government to control them; Leviathan guy

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2

State of Nature

The condition that states how humans would live without a government to control them (Hobbes - humans would go around fending for themselves and be rabid)

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3

The Magna Carta

Document that was forcibly signed by English King when he violated the rights of the english people. Good inspiration for the Constitution :)

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4

John Locke

Philosopher that said that if the government did not protect the rights of the people, then the people should overthrow the government.

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5

Montesquieu

Philosopher that suggested separation of powers with 3 parts

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6

Voltaire

Philosopher who wanted freedom of speech and the separation of the church and state

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7

Rousseau

Philosopher who came up with the idea of the Social Contract and popular sovereignty

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8

Separation of Powers

the actual, physical separation of the government into 3 branches

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9

Declaration of Independence

The paper that let America be America.

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10

U.S. Constitution

Replaced the Articles of Confederation to make the government less bad. "The Supreme Law of the Land"

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11

James Madison

Federalist leader, fourth president of the United States, also helped with the Constitution

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12

Alexander Hamilton

Federalist writer, first secretary of the treasury

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13

Limited government

The idea that "maybe to let people have rights, the government shouldn't be all powerful"

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14

Natural Rights

Rights that people are born with

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15

Popular Sovereignty

A government where the people rule and where the people are okay with that.

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16

Republicanism

a philosophy with a limited government where elected officials represent the will of the people

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17

Rule of Law

The law applies to everyone. This includes the rich, the people who govern, the majority, etc.

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18

Social Contract

The agreement between a government and its people where the people lose some of their rights and the government works to protect the people.

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19

Participatory Democracy

A democracy where every citizen is active and is a part of their government

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20

Pluralist Democracy

A democracy where organized groups have the most power in the government

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21

Elite Democracy

A democracy where the smart, rich dudes have the most power

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22

Federalist No. 10

Madison - dangerous factions...need a large republic + republican government

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23

Brutus No. 1

Antifederalist paper that says that country is simply too large for a republic. The Constitution gave too much power to the federal government.

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24

Articles of Confederation

The 1st draft of the Constitution. Was kinda bad. No power to tax, no power to trade, but did actually accomplish the land ordinance of 1795 and the northwest ordinance

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25

Federalists

Guys who liked a buff federal government. Checks and balances will keep the government from destroying the rights of the people.

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26

Anti-Federalists

Guys who wanted strong state governments

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27

Shay’s Rebellion

nearly overthrew the state of Massachusetts since the government couldn't raise an army

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28

Constitutional Convention

1787 meeting in Philadelphia to make a new, not terrible Constitution.

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29

New Jersey Plan

Small states - We want every state to have equal representation

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30

Virginia Plan

Big/populous states - We want more representation than the microscopic states

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31

Great (Connecticut) Compromise

Mash of the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan so that the Senate has equal representation but the House has representation based on population

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32

Electoral College

The people who actually vote for the president. They represent the votes of the people

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33

Three-Fifths Compromise

So a slave is 3/5ths of a person since the big states had an incredibly large slave population and wanted more representation based on that

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34

Compromise on the importation of slaves

Congress did not have the power to stop slave importation until 1808

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35

Amendment process

2/3rds of congress can propose, 3/4th of states must ratify

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36

Article V of the Constitution

Part of the constitution that describes the amendment process

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37

Federalism

Multiple levels of power - local --> state --> federal (you should know this by now).

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38

Commerce Clause

Congress can regulate interstate/international commerce.

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39

10th Amendment

Powers not specifically given to congress should go to the states

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40

Checks and balances

Action that makes sure that one part of the government doesn't become incredibly powerful. Each branch of the government limits the power of the others

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41

Enumerated powers

Powers SPECIFICALLY given to Congress in the constitution

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42

Federalist No. 51

Argues that the separation of powers is the best way to prevent a tyrant

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43

Fourteenth Amendment

Amendment that states that all people born in the country...are citizens...whether you like it or not

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44

Necessary and Proper Clause

Congress has the power to makes laws on anything that they think is "necessary and proper"

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45

Implied Powers

Powers that are not specifically given to congress, but they still have anyway

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46

McCulloch v Maryland

Emphasized the Supremacy Clause. A state cannot simply tax a federal body

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47

United States v. Lopez

A guy brings a gun to school, breaking a law that Congress made based on the Commerce Clause. It was decided that no, the commerce clause doesn't really apply.

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48

Congress

The Legislative body of America is called _________

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49

Senate

The part of Congress that gives equal representation per state

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50

House of Representatives

The part of Congress that bases representation on the population of the states

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51

Legislative Branch (Article I of the Constitution)

The part of the Constitution that explains the powers of Congress and where it can trample about

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52

Bicameral Legislature

Congress is split into two sections so that the legislative branch doesn't overpower the others

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53

Apportionment

Having a proportional number of representatives based on population

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54

Reapportionment

The action of changing the number of representatives based on population change (after a census)

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55

Congressional districting

State legislatures draw congressional districts for Congressional elections

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56

Incumbency effect

how it is more likely for a guy in office to be reelected since he is already in office

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57

Constituents

The people that a legislator has been elected to represent. The people that are being represented

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58

Debate structures in each house

Modes of Floor Consideration in the House: Suspension of rules (40-minute limit, no amendments, ⅔ vote of those present) Special rules (majority party makes rules) Committee of the whole (For more controversial bills. 1 hour. amendments must be relevant, Rises back into the House, and votes) Senate Floor Rules: Must agree to consider a Bill, No time limits, Rider Amendments allowed, Filibusters, Cloture, and Unanimous Consent

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59

Enumerated Powers of Congress

Powers of Congress that are given in the Constitution - examples include:

For the House - ability to start revenue bills, solve presidential election ties, initiate impeachments

For the Senate - actually removing a president from office, ratifying treaties, confirming presidential appointments

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60

Implied Powers of Congress

Powers of Congress that are not directly given by the Constitution, but Congress has anyway examples include:

establishing a national bank, federal minimum wage, military draft

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61

Whips

The people that try to keep their party in-line and try to convince the other party

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62

Rider Amendments

Amendments that are basically slapped onto a bill

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63

Committees

Groups of experts that deal with specific issues in congress

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64

Speaker of the House

Majority party guy who sets agenda and leads debate

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65

President of the Senate

the Vice president. Pretty useless in basically all cases unless to break a tie

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66

Party leadership

Leaders of their respective parties helps plan strategies, talks with other leaders, etc.

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67

President pro Tempore

The person that replaces the President of the Senate role when the VP is out

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68

Filibuster

the great power that a Senator has to just stand there and ramble on about absolutely anything to delay a vote

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69

Cloture

how to end a filibuster when people get sick of it

  • get 16 senators to sign

  • get a 2/3 vote 2 days later

  • debate will end in 30 hours

  • honestly takes about a week to pass

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70

Holds and unanimous consent

Agreement on any question or matter before the Senate that sets aside a rule of procedure to expedite (make something go quickly) proceedings

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71

Rules Committee

A House-specific committee that is made up of the majority party. They set the rules for how a bill will be debated

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72

Committee of the Whole

A committee made up of the entire legislative body to help speed up decisions

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73

Discharge petitions

how to force a bill out of committee if it's taking too long

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74

Select committee

committee for temporary purposes

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75

Joint committee

a committee with both the House and Senate members

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76

Conference Committee

A type of joint committee that tries to make compromises on bills they can't agree on

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77

Oversight powers

Congress's monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings

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78

Treaty ratification

The SENATE's ability to say yes or no to treaties that the president wants

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79

Senate confirmations

the Senate's ability to confirm any presidential appointments and treaties

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80

16th Amendment

INCOME TAX AMENDMENT :))))))

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81

17th Amendment

Basically how the senators are elected by the people

2 senators from each state Re-elected by the people every 6 years Each senator has 1 vote Must meet qualifications made by the state legislature A special direct election will happen if there are any vanencies in the senate (issued by governor) State legislatures can allow for governor to fill the vacancy before people vote

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82

Budget making

How Congress determines where to spend money and revenue

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83

Power of the Purse

The Legislative Branch's power regarding money (used in federalist no. 78)

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84

Pork-barrel legislation

Government politicians using massive amounts of money in single districts for political support

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85

Logrolling

Hey, I'll vote for your bill if you vote for mine

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86

Gerrymandering

Drawing district lines to benefit a political party

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87

Majority-minority district

A district that is created to have a majority of minority people. Technically constitutional unless it's by race

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88

Baker v Carr

Tennessee-based court case where the state refused to reapportion, even when the population shifted from place to place. In the end, Congress had the power to force Tennessee to reapportion

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89

Shaw v Reno

Where NC did the no-no of racial gerrymandering. Still technically segregation, even if it is for good intentions

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90

Lame-duck presidents

A politician who is still in office, even after they lost the reelection bid (the 20th amendment tried to limit this)

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91

Articles of Impeachment

Charges brought upon a president or judge by the House

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92

Executive Branch (Article II of the Constitution)

The part of the Constitution that explains the President's formal powers

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93

Formal powers of the President

Powers of the President that are explicitly stated in the Constitution examples:

Commander in chief Make treaties Appoint and receive ambassadors State of the Union address Veto laws Judicial appointments Convene congress Pardon or reprieve criminals

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94

Informal powers of the President

Powers of the President that are not actually stated in the Constitution examples:

Power to send more troops Controls air force Executive agreements (like informal treaties) Executive orders Executive privilege (don't have to tell secrets) Signing statements (signs a bill into law and can add a memo of interpretation) Legislative initiative (set up an agenda for them to do what they want) Impound congress funds

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95

Vetoes

If the president don't like a bill, then they can kill it there with a veto. But Congress can still override veto

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96

Pocket veto

Instead of passing or vetoing the bill, the president...ignores the bill

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97

Foreign policy

A nation's plan for dealing with other nations. executive agreements and treaties

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98

Executive orders

Laws, but make it really fast and easy to pass. If the president wants it, then they have it. Unless it is outrageously egregious, where the Supreme Court can say it is unconstitutional and Congress can write an opposing law

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99

Executive agreements

Agreements between US and other nations, but not formal in any way. Doesn't need to be ratified by Senate

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100

Executive Privilege

The President can keep secrets IF AND ONLY IF it is a matter of national security. Nixon

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