RAD 111- UNIT 3 INTERACTIONS + ABSORPTION/ATTENUATION/TRANSMISSION

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WHAT IS REQUIRED TO CONVERT LOW VOLTAGE TO HIGH VOLTAGE

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CH3 WITH EXTRA CH2 CONCEPTS

120 Terms

1

WHAT IS REQUIRED TO CONVERT LOW VOLTAGE TO HIGH VOLTAGE

A GENERATOR

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2

1 KILOVOLT IS HOW MANY VOLTS

1,000 VOLTS

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3

CONSISTENCY OF VOLTAGE SUPPLIED TO AN X-RAY TUBE DURING THE EXPOSURE

VOLTAGE WAVEFORM

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4

HOW MUCH VOLTAGE VARIES DURING X-RAY PRODUCTION

VOLTAGE RIPPLE

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5

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF GENERATORS

SINGLE-PHASE, THREE-PHASE, HIGH-FREQUENCY

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6

THE ELECTRICAL CURRENT USED IS USUALLY HOW MANY AMPS AND VOLTS

3-5 AMPS AND 10 VOLTS

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7

WHAT TYPE OF GENERATOR HAS TOTAL VARIATION IN VOLTAGE WAVEFORM FROM PEAK TO ZERO VOLTAGE

SINGLE PHASE

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8

WHAT GENERATOR HAS 100% VOLTAGE RIPPLE

SINGLE-PHASE GENERATOR

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9

A THREE-PHASE GENERATOR IN 6-PULSE MODE HAS HOW MUCH VOLTAGE RIPPLE?

13% VOLTAGE RIPPLE

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10

A THREE-PHASE GENERATOR IN 12-PULSE MODE HAS HOW MUCH VOLTAGE RIPPLE?

4% VOLTAGE RIPPLE

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11

WHAT TYPE OF GENERATOR HAS USUALLY LESS THAN 1% VOLTAGE RIPPLE

HIGH-FREQUENCY GENERATORS

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12

THE GENERATOR WITH THE MOST CONSISTENT VOLTAGE IS THE

HIGH-FREQUENCY GENERATORS

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13

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOLTAGE CONSISTENCY, VOLTAGE RIPPLE, AND QUANTITY/QUALITY OF BEAM

MORE CONSISTENT VOLTAGE-LESS RIPPLE-HIGHER QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF BEAM

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14

QUALITY CONTROL IS

A SERIES OF DIFFERENT TEST TO MAKE SURE THE EQUIPMENT IS WORKING AT HIGH QUALITY

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15

X-RAY QUALITY CAN BE AFFECTED BY

KVP AND EXPOSURE TIME

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16

THE MAXIMUM VARIABILITY OF KILOVOLTAGE IS

WITHIN + OR - 5%

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17

THE MAXIMUM VARIABILITY OF EXPOSURE TIME IS

+ OR - 5% IF TIMES GREATER THAN 10 MS AND + OR - 10% IF TIMES LESS THAN 10 MS

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18

WHAT MEASURES X RAY EXPOSURE TO EVALUATE RADIATION OUTPUT

DOSIMETER

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19

WHAT ARE THE WAYS TO MEASURE RADIATION INTENSITY

REPRODUCIBILITY OF EXPOSURE, MAS RECIPROCITY, AND MA AND EXPOSURE TIME LINEARITY

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20

WHAT VERIFIES THE CONSISTENCY OF RADIATION OUTPUT FOR A SET OF EXPOSURE FACTORS

REPRODUCIBILITY OF EXPOSURE

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21

THE MAXIMUM VARIABILITY FOR REPRODUCIBILITY OF EXPOSURE IS

GIVE OR TAKE 5%

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22

WHAT VERIFIES THE CONSISTENCY OF RADIATION INTENSITY FOR CHANGES IN MA AND EXPOSURE TUME

MAS RECIPROCITY

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23

WHAT IS THE VARIABILITY OF MAS RECIPROCITY

GIVE OR TAKE 10%

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24

WHAT VERIFIES THE PROPORTIONAL CHANGE IS MA OR EXPOSURE TIME OR BOTH TO CHANGE RADIATION INTENSITY

MA AND EXPOSURE TIME LINEARITY

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25

WHAT IS THE MAXIMUM VARIABILITY FOR MA AND EXPOSURE TIME LINEARITY

GIVE OR TAKE 10%

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26

WHATS THE 10% VALUE LAYER

THE AMOUNT OF FILTRATION NEEDED TO CUT THE BEAM INTENSITY BY 1/10TH

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27

WHATS THE HALF-VALUE LATER

THE AMOUNT OF FILTRATION THAT REDUCES INTENSITY OF THE XRAY BEAM TO HALF OF ITS ORIGINAL VALUE

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28

BEST METHOD FOR DESCRIBING X-RAY BEAM QUALITY IS

THE HALF-VALUE LAYER

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29

WHAT CAN BE USED TO INDIRECTLY MEASURE TOTAL FILTRATION IN THE X-RAY BEAM

THE HALF VALUE LAYER

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30

WHAT IS THE MAIN PURPOSE OF FILTRATION

PROTECT PATIENTS FORM UNNECESSARY DOSE

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31

WHAT IS MEASURED DURING A HVL TEST

INTENSITY OF ORIGINAL EXPOSURE AND ADDITION OF FILTRATION IN PATH OF PRIMARY BEAM

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32

THE X-RAY TUBE LIFE CAN BE EXTENDED WITH

THE LEAST-AMOUNT OF HEAT USED

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33

WAYS TO EXTEND TUBES LIFE INCLUDES (name at least 3)

WARM UP TUBES, EXCESSIVE HU GENERATION, HOLDING DOWN BUTTON UNNECESSARILY, LOWER TUBE CURRENT WITH LONG EXPOSURE TIMES, DO NOT MOVE TUBE WHILE ENERGIZED, STOP USING IF AN UNUSUAL NOISE

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34

WHAT IS THE DEVICE THAT RECEIVES THE RADIATION LEAVING THE PATIENT

THE IMAGE RECEPTOR

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35

WHAT DOES NOT HIT THE IR

ANYTHING THE PATIENT ABSORBS

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36

WHAT IS THE LATENT IMAGE

THE RAW/UNPROCESSED IMAGE

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37

REGARDLESS OF THE IMAGES BEING FILM OR DIGITAL. WHAT STAYS SIMILAR

THE ATRIBUTTES OF THE QUALITY

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38

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN INCREASE IN PT THICKNESS AND ABSORPTION

DIRECT RELATIONSHIP

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39

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN INCREASE IN ATOMIC NUMBER AND ABSORPTION

DIRECT RELATIONSHIP

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40

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TISSUE DENSITY AND ABSORPTION

DIRECT RELATIONSHIP

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41

THE PROCESS WHERE SOME X-RAY BEAM IS ABSORBED IN THE TISSUE AND SOME IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE PART

DIFFERENTIAL ABSORBTION

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42

WHAT IS THE ORDER OF TISSUE DENSITY IN DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION FROM MOST TO LEAST ABSORBED

BONE, MUSCLE, FAT, AIR

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43

REDUCTION OF PHOTONS AS THE BEAM INTERACTS WITH THE ANATOMIC TISSUE

BEAM ATTENUATION

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44

BEAM ATTENUATION IS

ABSORPTION AND SCATTER

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45

HOW DOES TISSUE THICKNESS AFFECT BEAM ATTENUATION

REDUCED BY ~ 50 % FOR EACH 4-5 CM OF TISSUE THICKNESS

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46

HOW DOES THE TYPE OF TISSUE AFFECT BEAM ATTENUATION

HIGHER ATOMIC NUMBER INCREASES BEAM ATTENUATION

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47

HOW DOES THE TISSUE DENSITY AFFECT BEAM ATTENUATION

INCREASING THE DENSITY (COMPACT) INCREASES BEAM ATTENUATION

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48

HOW DOES THE X-RAY BEAM QUALITY AFFECT BEAM ATTENUATION

MORE ENERGY OF THE BAM (HIGHER KVP) REDUCES THE BEAM ATTENUATION (INVERSE RELATIONSHIP)

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49

WHAT HAPPENS TO A PATIENT THAT HAS THINNER TISSUES

MORE TRANSMISSION

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50

WHAT HAPPENS TO A PATIENT THAT HAS THICKER TISSUES

MORE ABSORPTION AND MORE ATTENUATION

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51

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEAM QUALITY AND ATTENUATION

INVERSE; LOWER ENERGY = MORE ABSORPTION

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52

COMPLETE ABSORPTION OF THE INCOMING PHOTON REPRESENTS

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

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53

WHAT IS HAPPENING WHEN AN INCOMING PHOTON EJECTS AND INNER SHELL ELECTRON AND GETS COMPLETELY ABSORBED

THE PHOTOELECTRON EFFECT

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54

WHAT FILLS THE VACANCY IN AN INNER SHELL ELECTRON EJECTION

AN UPPER-LEVEL ELECTRON SHELL

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55

A SMALLER PERCENTAGE OF PHOTOELECTRIC INTERACTIONS OCCUR AT

HIGHER LEVELS OF KVP

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56

WHAT INTERACTION IS THE NUMBER ONE SOURCE OF PATIENT DOSAGE?

THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

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57

WHAT IS IT CALLED WHEN A PHOTON LOSES SOME OF ITS ENERGY BUT NOT ALL OF IT AND THEN CHANGES DIRECTION

THE COMPTON SCATTERING EFFECT

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58

WHAT IS THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT DEPENDENT ON

THE ENERGY OF THE INCOMING PHOTON AND THE ATOMIC NUMBER OF THE TISSUE

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59

WHAT IS THE COMPTON SCATTER EFFECT DEPENDENT ON

ONLY THE ENERGY OF THE INCOMING PHOTON

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60

THE NUMBER OF COMPTON INTERACTIONS INCREASE COMPARED TO THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT WHEN

THERE IS HIGHER KVP (ALTHOUGH GENERALLY THERE IS LESS INTERACTIONS OVERALL)

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61

AN INCOMING PHOTON LOSES ENERGY AS IT EJECTS AN OUTER SHELL ELECTRON AND CHANGES DIRECTION

COMPTON EFFECT

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62

WHAT PROVIDES NO USEFUL INFORMATION

SCATTERED PHOTONS THAT STRIKE THE IR

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63

WHAT INTERACTION IS THE NUMBER ONE CAUSE OF OCCUPATIONAL DOSAGE

COMPTON SCATTERING

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64

WHAT INTERACTION DOES NOT CONTRIBUTE TO THE QUALITY OF THE IMAGE BUT RATHER EXPOSURE TO ANYONE AROUND THE PATIENT

THE COHERENT-CLASSICAL SCATTERING

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65

INCOMING PHOTON INTERACTS WITH THE ATOM, CHANGES DIRECTION, BUT DOES NOT LOSE ENERGY

COHERENT (CLASSICAL) SCATTERING

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66

EXIT/REMNANT RADIATION IS

TRANSMITTED AND SCATTERED RADIATION

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67

WHAT CREATES UNWANTED EXPOSURE (AKA FOG)

SCATTER RADIATION

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68

WHEN EXPOSURE IS EXTREMELY LOW, WHAT IS SHOWN ON THE IMAGE

QUANTOM MOTTLE (QUANTOM NOISE)

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69

WHEN EXPOSURE IS EXTREMELY HIGH, WHAT IS SHOWN ON THE IMAGE

SATURATION (BURN OUT OF IMAGE)

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70

DIGITAL IMAGES PROVIDES

A DYNAMIC RANGED AND GREATER MARGIN FOR ERROR

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71

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEAM ATTENUATION, ABSORPTION, AND TRANSMISSION IN INCREASE OF TISSUE THICKNESS

INCREASE ATTENUATION=INCREASE ABORPTION= DECREASE TRANSMISSION (*INVERSE IF DECREASE ON TISSUE THICKNESS)

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72

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEAM ATTENUATION, ABSORPTION, AND TRANSMISSION IN INCREASING ATOMIC NUMBER

INCREASE ATTENUATION=INCREASE ABORPTION= DECREASE TRANSMISSION (*INVERSE IF DECREASE ON ATOMIC NUMBER)

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73

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEAM ATTENUATION, ABSORPTION, AND TRANSMISSION IN INCREASING TISSUE DENSITY

INCREASE ATTENUATION= INCREASE ABORPTION= DECREASE TRANSMISSION (INVERSE IF DECREASING TISSUE DENSITY)

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74

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEAM ATTENUATION, ABSORPTION, AND TRANSMISSION IN INCREASING BEAM QUALITY

DECREASE ATTENUATION= DECREASE ABORPTION= INCREASE TRANSMISSION (INVERSE IF DECREASING BEAM QUALITY)

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75

WHAT CREATES AN INCREASED BRIGHTNESS ON THE IMAGE AND WHAT DOES IT APPEAR AS

ABSORBED RADIATION (WHITE ON THE IMAGE)

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76

WHAT CREASES A DECREASE OF BRIGHTNESS AND WHAT DOES IT APPEAR AS

TRANSMITTED RADIATION (BLACK ON THE IMAGE)

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77

TERM USED TO DESCRIBE THE VARIOUS SHADES OF GRAY RECORDED IN THE IMAGE AND MAKES TISSUE VISIBLE

DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION

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78

ONCE THE LATENT IMAGE IS PROCESSED, IT PRODUCES THE

MANIFEST IMAGE

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79

HOW MUCH X-RAY BEAM INTERACTING WITH THE PART ACTUALLY REACHES THE IR

LESS THAN 5%, EVEN LESS USED TO CREATE THE IMAGE

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80

WHAT ARE 2 FACTORS OF RADIOGRAPHIC QUALITY

VISIBILITY OF STRUCTURES AND THE ACCURACY OF STRUCTURAL LINES (SHARPNESS)

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81

WHAT ARE THE CATEGORIES THAT INFLUENCE THE VISIBILITY OF ANATOMIC STRUCTURES

BRIGHTNESS (WHITES) AND CONTRAST (GRAYS)

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82

WHAT ARE THE CATEGORIES THAT INFLUENCE THE ACCURACY OF STRUCTURAL LINES (AKA SHARPNESS)

SPATIAL RESOLUTION (DETAIL) AND DISTORTION (SHAPE AND SIZE)

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83

THE AMOUNT OF LUMINANCE OF A DISPLAY MONITOR

BRIGHTNESS

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84

WHEN AN IMAGE IS EXTREMELY OVEREXPOSED

SATURATION

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85

WINDOW WIDTH

CHANGED CONTRAST (LLGW)

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86

WINDOW LEVEL

CHANGES BRIGHTNESS (NOT LLGW)

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87

THE RESULT OF THE TISSUES DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION OF XRAY PHOTONS RESULTS IN

RANGES OF BRIGHTNESS LEVELS

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88

THE ABILITY OF AN IMAGING SYSTEM TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SMALL OBJECTS THAT ATTENUATE THE XRAY BEAM

CONTRAST RESOLUTION

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89

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONTRAST RESOLUTION AND ANATOMIC STRUCTURE VISIBILITY

DIRECT (ONE INCREASES AND SO DOES THE OTHER)

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90

RESULT OF THE DIFFERING ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ANATOMIC TISSUE THAT IS RADIOGRAPHED AND BEAM QUALITY OF XRAY

SUBJECT CONTRAST

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91

LOW SUBJECT CONTRAST IS SEEN IN

BEAM ATTENUATION THAT IS SIMILAR

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92

HIGH SUBJECT CONTRAST IS SEEN IN

BEAM ATTENUATION THAT IS VERY DIFFERENT

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93

THE ABILITY TO DISTINGUISH AMONG TYPES OF TISSUE IS DETERMINED BY

CONTRAST

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94

THE ABILITY OF AN IR TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN OBJECTS HAVING SIMILAR SUBJECT CONTRAST

CONTRAST RESOLUTION

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95

NUMBERR OF DIFFERENT SHADES OF GRAY THAT CAN BE STORED AND DISPLAYED IN A DIGITAL IMAGE

GRAY SCALE

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96

HIGHER CONTRAST VS LOWER CONTRAST RESULTING FROM

HIGHER CONTRAST= MORE DIFFERENCES IN ABSORPTION BETWEEN TISSUES

LOWER CONTRAST= LESS DIFFERENCES IN ABSORPTION BETWEEN TISSUESS

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97

WHAT XRAY IS AN EXAMPLE OF HIGH SUBJECT CONTRAST

CHEST XRAY

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98

WHAT XRAY IS AN EXAMPLE OF LOW SUBJECT CONTRAST

ABDOMEN

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99

HIGH CONTRAST =

BLACK AND WHITE

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100

LOW CONTRAST=

MORE GRAYS OR LLGW

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