blood, immune, and endocrine

studied byStudied by 4 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Connective tissue

1 / 101

Tags and Description

Medicine

12th

102 Terms

1

Connective tissue

blood is a __________

New cards
2

erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes

What are the formed elements?

New cards
3

Erythrocytes

transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

New cards
4

Erythrocytes

concave disc, presence of hemoglobin, and no nuclei

New cards
5

hematopoiesis

the formation of new blood cells. Occurs in the bone marrow. Old erythrocytes are recycled in the liver and spleen

New cards
6

Leukocytes

Function: immunity, protection against disease

New cards
7

Leukocytes

Characteristics: contains organelles and nuclei. Stain different colors.

New cards
8

Thrombocytes

also known as platelets

New cards
9

cellular fragments

thrombocytes are ___________

New cards
10

thrombocytes

function: work in a cascading pathway to form blood clots and stop bleeding

New cards
11

hemostasis

the process of stopping bleeding

New cards
12

granulocytes

granules and lobed nuclei

New cards
13

Neutrophils *look at slides for how to remember

multiple lobes

New cards
14

eosinophils

stain red

New cards
15

Basophils

hidden nucleus

New cards
16

Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

Which leukocytes are granulocytes?

New cards
17

monocytes and lymphocytes

Which leukocytes are agranulocytes?

New cards
18

Monocytes

one curved lobe

New cards
19

lymphocytes

simple appearance; looks like a circular blob

New cards
20

plasma

The formed elements are suspended in a fluid called

New cards
21

plasma

Characteristics: yellowish in color

New cards
22

plasma proteins

Plasma is 90% water and 10% solute that contains ____________ and other dissolved substances

New cards
23

albumin, fibrinogen, and globulins

What is contained in the solutes of plasma?

New cards
24

albumin

Function: osmosis regulation

New cards
25

fibrinogen

Function: clotting

New cards
26

globulins

Function: variety of roles in clotting and immunity

New cards
27

heparinization

prevents coagulation (mixing) of the blood sample using heparin protein

New cards
28

Hematocrit

Function: determines the shortage or excess of RBC

New cards
29

Males

Do males or females have higher hematocrit levels?

New cards
30

it means that the blood is denser, or less concentrated

What does it mean to have a higher hematocrit level?

New cards
31

The blood has more fluid

What does it mean to have a lower hematocrit level?

New cards
32

polycythemia (many cells) and dehydration

What are the conditions for high hematocrit?

New cards
33

anemia

what are the conditions of low hematocrit?

New cards
34

antigen

surface protein that act as identifiers, like nametags; describers a marker on a foreign substance that might trigger an immune response

New cards
35

antibodies

immunoglobulins; blood proteins that are used to identify and neutralize foreign threats such as pathogens

New cards
36

Made up of multiple polypeptide chains; contain 2 heavy chains and 2 light chains

What is the structure of an antibody?

New cards
37

antigen binding domain

_____________ opposite to the constant proportion

New cards
38

constant proportion

antigen binding domain opposite to the _____________

New cards
39

antigens

Blood type is determined by the presence or absence of __________ on RBCs

New cards
40

antigens

proteins on RBCs

New cards
41

antibodies

exist in plasma and generate an immune response

New cards
42

A, B, AB, O

What are the 4 blood types?

New cards
43

Blood typing

Function: determines compatibility of blood types for blood transfusions and organ transplants

New cards
44

the donors blood will clump in the recipients vein

What happens if the donor and receipt blood types are incompatible?

New cards
45

agglutination

when the blood cells glue together, coagulation

New cards
46

nametag

antigens are the ___________

New cards
47

specialized weapon

antibodies are the _____________

New cards
48

recipient antibodies

What determines whether agglutination occurs or not?

New cards
49

II or Ii

What are the genotypes for type A blood?

New cards
50

II

What are the genotypes for type AB blood?

New cards
51

II or Ii

What are the genotypes for type B blood?

New cards
52

ii

What are the genotypes for type O blood?

New cards
53

Innate immune system

  • Nonspecific, general purpose immune response

  • Ready to fight infection from birth

  • Inflammation

  • Physical and chemical barriers, e.g. skin, mucous membranes, saliva, stomach acid

New cards
54

adaptive immune system

  • Immune response specific to the infecting pathogen

  • Controlled by detecting antigens and producing antibodies

New cards
55

Neutrophils, macrophages, complement proteins, dendritic cells, eosinophils, basophils

What is involved in the innate immune system?

New cards
56

Lymphocytes: T cells and B cells

What is involved in the adaptive immune system?

New cards
57

macrophages

  • Large soldier cells of the immune system

  • Non-specific, innate immune response

  • Reach out with arms like an octopus to grab and eat bacteria cells whole (phagocytosis)

New cards
58

neutrophils

  • Intense suicide warrior cells that only live to kill

  • Non-specific, innate immune response

  • Devour bacteria

  • Vomit deadly chemicals to kill bacteria

  • Cause damage to the body’s own cells

  • Programmed cell death to prevent too much damage to the self

  • Can explode, casting a wide, toxic net made of DNA to trap and kill bacteria

New cards
59

inflammation

  • Blood vessels open up to allow fluid to rush to the site of infection

  • Swelling

  • Redness

  • Warmth

  • Non-specific, innate immune response

  • Good when fighting an infection, short-term

  • Bad when chronic, long-term damage

New cards
60

complement proteins

  • Network of plasma proteins, not living cells

  • Automated liquid weapon

  • Stun and kill bacteria by ripping holes in them

  • Non-specific, innate immune response

  • Way to remember (yes, I came up with this): SUPRISE SHAWTYYYY U LOOK SO SEXY TODAY (see, i just complimented u and u were stunned just like how a _________ _______ stuns and kills bacteria hehe (except i wont be killing u))

New cards
61

dendritic cells

  • Immune system intelligence officer

  • Covers itself with pieces of dead pathogen cells

  • Travels through lymph to present pathogen cell fragments to T cells

  • Connection point between innate and adaptive immune systems

New cards
62

lymphatic system

  • Superhighway of the immune system fluid vessels similar to blood vessels

  • Connect lymph nodes - headquarters for immune cells

New cards
63

T cells

  • All-purpose commander and support cells of the immune system (helper __ cells)

  • Adaptive immune response, specific to the antigens of the infecting pathogen

  • Order the production of antibodies by B cells (T cells Tell what the B cells to do)

  • Give aid to and rejuvenate macrophages

  • May adapt to become memory cells after the infection is resolved (Memory __ Cells)

  • Some adapt to fight and kill infected cells (Killer ___ Cells)

New cards
64

T cells

what cells order the production of antibodies by B cells?

New cards
65

B cells

What cells produce antibodies?

New cards
66

B cells

  • Antibody factories

  • Produce antibodies: plasma protein superweapons specific to the invading pathogen

  • Adaptive immune response

  • Some adapt to become memory __ cells

New cards
67

thymus

  • Site of T cell maturation: the “Murder University” where T cells that attack self antigens are ordered to undergo programmed cell death

  • Decreases in size and activity starting at puberty, gradually replaced by fatty tissue

New cards
68

vaccines

  • Dead, fragmented, or weakened live variants of pathogens are injected into the body

  • Trigger an adaptive immune response

  • Creates memory cells specific to a pathogen

  • Common side effects: inflammation, fever, rash

New cards
69

Endocrine system

Messenger system made up of several glands that produce hormones

New cards
70

hormones

chemical messengers that are regulated by feedback mechanisms

New cards
71

glands

produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream

New cards
72

melatonin

What hormone does the pineal gland produce?

New cards
73

melatonin

Function: regulates sleep, circadian rhythm, and responds to light and dark

New cards
74

pituitary gland

  • Located inferior to the hypothalamus, secretes some hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus

  • Composed of anterior and posterior portions

New cards
75

growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin

What hormones are produced in the anterior pituitary gland?

New cards
76

growth hormone

function: growth

New cards
77

thyroid stimulating hormone

function: regulates thyroid growth and hormone production

New cards
78

luteinizing hormone

function: produces androgens in males and females and triggers ovulation

New cards
79

prolactin

function: stimulates milk production

New cards
80

antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

What hormones are produced in the posterior pituitary gland?

New cards
81

antidiuretic (ADH, Vasopressin)

function: regulates blood pressure through urine production

New cards
82

oxytocin

Function:

  • Social behavior and bonding

  • Sexual response

  • Milk ejection

  • Uterine contractions (labor)

New cards
83

thyroid hormone and calcitonin

What hormones are produced in the thyroid gland?

New cards
84

Thyroid hormone

function:

  • Increase basal metabolic rate (BMR)

  • Regulate growth and temperature

New cards
85

calcitonin

function:

  • Inhibits osteoclast activity → decrease blood Ca2+

  • Counteracts PTH in negative feedback mechanism to regulate calcium levels

New cards
86

parathyroid hormone

What hormone is produced by the parathyroid gland?

New cards
87

Parathyroid hormone

Function:

  • Stimulates osteoclast activity → decreases blood Ca2+

  • Increases Vitamin D production

  • Counteracts calcitonin in negative feedback mechanism to regulate calcium levels

New cards
88

thymosin

what hormone is produced by the thymus?

New cards
89

thymosin

function:

  • T cell development and differentiation

  • Regulate immune responses

New cards
90

cortisol and epinephrine

What hormones are produced by the adrenal glands?

New cards
91

cortisol

function:

  • Elevated when stressed

  • Increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis

  • Suppresses immune system

New cards
92

epinephrine

function:

  • Sympathetic nervous response - fight or flight

  • Increase heart rate, respiratory rate

New cards
93

insulin and glucagon

What hormones are produced by the pancreas?

New cards
94

insulin

function: Decreases blood sugar levels by regulating cell uptake of glucose and glycogenesis

New cards
95

glucagon

function: Increase blood sugar levels by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

New cards
96

estrogen and progesterone

What hormones are produced by the ovaries?

New cards
97

estrogen

function: Regulate reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics in females

New cards
98

progesterone

function: Many functions in regulating pregnancy

New cards
99

testosterone

What hormone is produced by the testes?

New cards
100

testosterone

Functions:

  • Anabolic effects in males and females: bone density, protein synthesis, muscle mass and strength

  • Androgenic effects in males: secondary sex characteristics

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 97 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6960 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(50)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard190 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard79 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard123 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)