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The substances which can flow. This property applies to liquids and gases. We can't tell that solids can flow due to their high atomic forces of attraction.

1

Density

________ is a positive scalar quantity.

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2

Density

Mass per unit volume of a substance is defined as density.

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3

Buoyancy

If a body is fully or partially immersed in a fluid, it experiences an upward force due to the fluid called buoyant force, and the phenomenon is called buoyancy.

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4

The Volume Flow Rate

It is the volume of fluid that passes through a particular point per unit of time.

*f = Av*

f = volumetric flow rate

A = cross-sectional area

v = flow velocity v

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5

Bernoulli’s Effect

At comparable heights, the pressure is lower where the flow speed is greater.

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6

Air Flow

The air on the bottom has greater pressure and pushes up on the wing giving the airplane lift force

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7

Pressure

Pressure is defined as the magnitude of the normal force acting per unit surface area.

*P = F/A*

P is pressure

F is force

A is the area

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8

Pressure units

Pascal (Pa) 1 Pa = 1 N/m^2

Practical units: atm, bar, torr

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9

Hydrostatic pressure

It is the pressure due to the liquid.

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10

Continuity equation

The density of the fluid is constant.

*A1V1 = A2V2*

A1 and A2 (cross-sectional areas)

V1 and V2 (flow velocities)

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11

Bernoulli’s Equation (Conservation of energy in liquids)

fluid is incompressible.

fluid’s viscosity is negligible.

fluid is streamlined.

the equation is very similar to the conservation of energy with total mechanical energy.

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