Intro to Earth Science Exam 1

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Universe, Milky Way, Solar System

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Universe, Milky Way, Solar System

Objects from oldest to youngest

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Red shift (Doppler shift,) galaxies observed moving away from one another, "echoes" of microwave radiation

evidence of the big bang

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hydrogen

composition of the universe when it was young

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dust aggregating towards the central plane, collisional coagulation

how is a planetesimal formed?

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impact with a mars sized planetary body

how did the moon form?

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Collapse of the Solar Nebula

What caused the solar system to form?

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direct observation (rovers, landers, and humans) and indirect observation (meteorites)

how do we know about the planets in our solar system?

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radiation, conduction, convection

What are the three types of heat transfer?

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the tilt of Earth's axis

What causes Earth's seasons?

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geosphere (mantle and plate tectonics,) atmosphere (wind,) and hydrosphere (water currents)

what parts of the earth experience convection?

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seafloor spreading

The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges, evidenced by mid-ocean trenches and ridges

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slab push

Magma pushes its way up through the crust, pushing the crust apart.

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slab pull

the pulling of a tectonic plate as its edge subducts deep into the mantle

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heat from inside the earth

what drives plate tectonics?

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Fossils, Glaciers, complimentary coastlines, magnetic field reversals, & Rocks

evidence for plate tectonics

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plate boundary

the region where two tectonic plates are in contact

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volcanoes, earthquakes, and deep sea vents

what defines a plate boundary

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divergent plate boundary

an area beneath the ocean where tectonic plates move away from each other

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convergent plate boundary

A tectonic plate boundary where two plates collide, come together, or crash into each other.

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transform boundary

A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions

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type of crust involved

what does type of plate boundary depend on?

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granite, light

what is the composition and weight of continental crust

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basalt, heavy

what is the composition and weight of oceanic crust

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continental-continental convergence

happens where 2 continental plates collide and push up creating mountain ranges

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oceanic-oceanic convergence

denser plate is subducted, deep trenches generated, volcanic island arcs generated

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oceanic-continental convergence

more dense oceanic plate dives under continental plate. forms a trench. causes volcanoes, and earthquakes

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Mafic

describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color, composition of magma generated at mid-ocean ridge

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Felsic

Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color, composition of magma generated at oceanic-continental convergent boundary

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hot spot

An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it. plume of hotter and lighter mantle material. stationary/does not move with other plates. theory established while studying hawaii

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volcano

A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface

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by following volcanic trails

how can hotspots be used to track plate motion

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Kimberlite

rare, ultramafic rock that can contain diamonds and other minerals formed only under very high pressures.

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effusive volcanism

A type of volcanism in which the magma is very fluid and emerges gradually.

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explosive volcanism

A type of volcanism in which pressure in the volcano builds up for a long time, so that an eruption much lava, rock and ash is ejected high into the air.

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shield volcano

a wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions. low viscosity, mafic magma.

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Stratovolcano/Composite Volcano

A composite volcanic cone built of interlayered lava flows and pyroclastic materials. high viscosity, felsic magma

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cinder cone

A steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano's opening

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Caldera complex

depression formed at the summit of shield volcanoes

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lava flow

the area covered by lava as it pours out of a volcano's vent

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Tuff Ring

broad flat crater with low rims and shallow slope formed by a phreatomagmatic eruption

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Tuff

A pyroclastic igneous rock composed of volcanic ash and fragmented pumice, formed when accumulations of the debris cement together.

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Phreatomagmatic eruption

An eruption in which magma contacts cold water and contracts, either slowly, forming pillow basalts, or rapidly, forming ash.

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flood basalt

Vast sheets of basalt that spread from a volcanic vent over an extensive surface of land; they may form where a rift develops above a continental hot spot, and where lava is particularly hot and has low viscosity.

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gravity, atmospheric density, surface and atmospheric temperatures, cryovolcanism

factors affecting planetary volcanism

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less gravity makes lava thicker

how does gravity affect volcanism?

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determines how high it reaches

how does gravity and atmospheric density affect pyroclastic flow and eruptions

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changes how the lava cools, hot atmosphere and surface means lava cools very slowly

how does surface temperature affect volcanism?

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lost 1350 ft from top, devastated 160 sq mi of forest, mudflows, ash and debris launched 11 miles into the stratosphere

why was mount saint helens dangerous

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temperature (hotter magmas are less viscous), composition, and dissolved gases in the magma

what determines magma behavior?

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rhyolitic/andesitic lavas

higher silica content, more viscous

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basaltic lava

low silica, flows easily

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how easily gases escape from lava

how is violence of an eruption determined

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Quiescent eruptions

Calm oozing of magma out of the ground produces lava flows. Usually associated with basaltic lavas of low viscosit

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explosive eruption

an eruption that is thick and sticky, has a high gas content, and is high in silica

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aa flow

a type of lava flow that has a jagged, blocky surface

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pahoehoe flow

a lava flow with a smooth-to-ropy surface

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lava tube

The empty space left when a lava tunnel drains; this happens when the surface of a lava flow solidifies while the inner part of the flow continues to stream downslope.

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block lava

Lava that has a surface of angular blocks associated with material having andesitic and rhyolitic compositions

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pillow lava

Basaltic ava that cools underwater, taking on a distinctive pillow-like shape as it hardens

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pyroclastic material (tephra)

magma, ash and pieces of rock that are ejected into the atmosphere during an explosive volcanic eruption

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pyroclastic flow

The expulsion of ash, cinders, bombs, and gases during an explosive volcanic eruption

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Scoria

a glassy, mafic, igneous rock containing abundant air-filled holes

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Pumice

A type of igneous rock that contains air bubbles. rhyolitic

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fissure eruption

an eruption in which lava is extruded from narrow fractures or cracks in the crust

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basalt plateau

a plateau built up by horizontal or nearly horizontal overlapping lava flows that erupted from fissures

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lava dome

A mountain or hill made from highly viscous lava, which plugs the central conduit of volcanoes

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Volcanism at convergent plate boundaries

Occurs at subduction zones, where two plates converge and the oceanic lithosphere descends into the mantle.

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continental volcanic arc

mountains formed in part by volcanic activity caused by the subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath a continent

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volcanic island arc

a chain of volcanic islands generally located a few hundred kilometers from a trench where there is active subduction of one oceanic plate beneath another

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intraplate volcanism

igneous activity that occurs within a tectonic plate away from plate boundaries

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Large Igneous Provinces

a region in which huge volumes of lava and/or ash erupted over a relatively short interval of geologic time. basaltic

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surge

a small amount of ash that separates from the main body of pyroclastic flow

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Lahar

An avalanche of volcanic water and mud down the slopes of a volcano

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Tsunami

A giant wave usually caused by an earthquake beneath the ocean floor.

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Krakatoa

Volcano in Indonesia in 1883 that had a giant explosion and created a series of tsunamis killing 36,000

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Minerals

occur naturally in rocks and soil, inorganic solids composed of 1 or more elements

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Rocks

A naturally formed aggregate, or mixture, of minerals; have varied chemical compositions

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elements held together by chemical bonds

how are minerals formed?

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covalent bond

A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

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ionic bond

Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

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metallic bond

a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them

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van der walls bond

weak attractive force between electrical neutral atoms

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Ordered internal structure

The atoms in the minerals are organized in a regular, repetitive geometric patterns or crystal structure.

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Solid Solution Series

A series of minerals of identical structures that contain a mixture of 2 or more elements over a range of proportions. Ex calcic, albite

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Polymorphs

Minerals with the same composition but different crystalline structures. ex. graphite, diamond

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Mineral Identification

color, streak, luster, hardness, specific gravity, crystal habit, fracture/cleavage

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Cleavage

A mineral's ability to split easily along flat surfaces. described by quality of break, number of planes, and angles between adjacent planes

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fracture

The way a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way

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Silicates

minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements. largest group of minerals

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Nonsilicates

Mineral groups that lack silicas in their structures and account for less than 10 percent of Earth's crust.

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No, it is organic

is coal a mineral?

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Plutonic

An igneous rock that solidified at a considerable depth underground. (large crystal size)

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Extrusive

fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface

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size of crystals and rock texture

what does rate of cooling affect

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Phaneritic

coarse-grained, crystals are large enough to be seen w/out a microscope, formed by slow cooling (intrusive)

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Aphanitic

fine grained

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glassy

crystal unable to form; Rapid rate of cooling prevents crystals from forming

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Porphyritic

rock texture characterized by large, well-formed crystals surrounded by finer-grained crystals of the same mineral

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Pegmatite

late stage crystallization of silicates

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basalt and gabbro

examples of mafic igneous rocks

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