Ecology

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Population is

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124 Terms

1

Population is

same species

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2

Community is

multiple species

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3

Ecosystem is

Organisms and abiotic environment

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4

Landscape / seascape are

Connected ecosystems

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5

Global ecology is

the biosphere

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6

How are terrestrial biomes classified?

dominant vegetation

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7

What drives transitions among forested biome types?

Temperature and precipitation

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8

What is disturbance?

an event that removes individuals from a population

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9

What factors limit distribution?

dispersal, abiotic, biotic factors

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10

Examples of abiotic factors

Temperature, moisture, salinity, oxygen

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11

Examples of biotic factors

Resources, predation, competition, disease

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12

What is an outbreak?

rapid increase in population density

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13

Exponential growth formula

dN/dt = rN

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14

what does dN/dt mean?

size at time 0

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15

what does r represent

per capita growth rate

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16

The four per capita rules are

Birth rate, death rate, immigration rate, emigration rate

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17

Per capita growth rate formula

r = b - d + i - e

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18

What is a closed population?

Has no immigration or emigration

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19

What is the net per capita migration rate?

Difference between immigration and emigration rates

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20

Open population population growth formula

r = (b - d + m)

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21

Outbreaks are caused by what

environment change

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22

What is gregarization?

Change from population of solitary forms to swarms

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23

How does gregarization happen

mechanical stimulation

Hormones to serotonin

Behaviour change in hours

Colour change

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24

What is intra-specific competition?

Competition for resources among individuals of the same species

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25

What is carrying capacity (K)

number of individuals of a population that an environment can support

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26

Birth rate is dependant on what?

Density dependant

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27

What is equilibrium density?

Birth rate equals death rate

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28

What does a regulated population have?

at least one density dependant rate

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29

Effect of limited resources formula

(K-N)/K

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30

What happens when N value is small

Population growth is close to exponential

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31

What happens when N=K

Population growth is zero

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32

What happens when N is larger than K

Population growth is negative

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33

what are the trade-offs of reproduction?

More offspring means less energy put into each one

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34

What is the r strategy?

Many low quality offspring due to harsh environments

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35

What is the K strategy?

Few high quality offspring due to highly competitive environments

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36

Ways that death rates vary

Age and Sex

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37

What is the photic zone?

Part of ocean that receives sunlight, O2 rich, nutrient poor

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38

what is the aphotic zone?

Part of the ocean that does not receive sunlight, O2 poor, nutrient rich

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39

Zones of the ocean from shallow to deep

Intertidal, neritic, oceanic

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40

What is thermocline?

zone of rapid temperature change

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41

What does eutrophic mean?

High nutrients and productivity

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42

What does oligotrophic mean?

low nutrients and productivity

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43

What are interspecific competitors?

Use same resource, resource is in limited supply

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44

what is an ecological niche?

The role a species plays in an ecosystem

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45

Realized niche

Observed niche that occupies in the wild

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46

Fundamental niche

Conditions in which it can survive and reproduce

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47

How do corals benefit from zooxanthellae?

Zooxanthellae photosynthesize, feed corals

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48

How do zooxanthellae benefit from corals?

Safe place to live, coral excretes CO2, N

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49

What allows abundant life in low nutrient waters?

Mutualism

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50

Colonization of new space depends on what?

Settlement rate and growth rate

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51

What is redundancy?

Several species having similar roles in a community

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52

What do food webs represent?

Trophic interactions

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53

What makes a species important in the food web?

Eat most organisms and eaten by most organisms

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54

What makes a dominant species?

High biomass

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55

What is a keystone species?

Large impact despite low biomass and abundance

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56

What is top down control?

Higher trophic level reduces abundance of lower trophic level

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57

What causes regime shifts?

Removal of species, arrival of disease, climate change, nutrient inputs

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58

How does lyme disease spread?

Migratory birds move ticks to new locations

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59

Why is lyme disease spiking?

More forest, more deer, warmer climate, more ticks

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60

Components of an ecosystem

Primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, detritus, decomposers

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61

Ecosystems and life are powered by what?

the sun

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62

How do ecosystems transfer chemical energy?

Consumption

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63

Ecosystems lose heat energy through what?

Respiration

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64

Energy flow is entered as what?

Radiant energy

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65

Energy flow is stored as what?

Chemical energy

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66

What is transferred among components?

Organic Carbon

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67

What is the rate of primary production?

Rate that primary producer biomass is built

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68

What is the rate of secondary production?

Rate that consumer biomass is built

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69

What is the rate of decomposition?

Rate that inorganic nutrients are released from detritus

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70

What is Net Primary Production (NPP)

Rate that plant biomass increases in an ecosystem

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71

What is Gross Primary Production (GPP)

Total light energy captured by plants

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72

NPP Formula

NPP = GPP - Ra

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73

What is autotrophic respiration (Ra)

Energy lost due to plant respiration

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74

GPP Formula

GPP = NPP + Ra

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75

What is Net Ecosystem Production (NEP)

Biomass accumulated in all ecosystem components

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76

Energy is stored as what?

Biomass

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77

What is Total Respiration (Rt)

Biomass lost from all components

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78

NEP Formula

NEP = GPP - Rt

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79

What does a positive NEP do?

Lowers atmospheric CO2

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80

What limits NPP in Ecosystems?

Temperature (Latitude, Elevation), Moisture, Soil nutrients

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81

N-fixation formula

N2 gas to Ammonium

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82

Nitrification Formula

Ammonium to Nitrate

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83

Denitrification Formula

Nitrate to N2 gas

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84

What is assimilation?

Plants in cycle turn Ammonium and Nitrate to organic N

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85

Natural sources of Nitrogen

Lightning, Bacteria

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86

Human input of Nitrogen

Agriculture, FFs

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87

Nitrogen effects on coastal marine environments

too many nutrients, eutrophication decomposes algae, O2 depletion

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88

What is cooperative behaviour

Good for actor and recipient

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89

Cooperative behaviour examples

Defence, hunting

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90

What is selfish behaviour?

Good for actor, bad for recipient

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91

Selfish behaviour example

Terrotoriality

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92

What is is spiteful behaviour?

Bad for both actor and recipient

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93

Spiteful behaviour example

Surplus killing

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94

What is altruism?

Bad for actor, good for recipient

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95

Altruism example

Pika alarm calls warm other but increase risk to self

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96

What is kin selection?

Selection for an act that enhances relative’s reproductive success

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97

What is Hamilton’s rule?

Natural selection favours an act is Cost to altruist is less that Benefit to recipient x relatedness

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98

Cost to altruist =

Risk of dying x lost reproduction

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99

What is r for full siblings / mother to daughter?

r = 1/2

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100

What is reciprocal altruism?

Favour will be returned in future

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