human physiology - no D

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165 Terms

1

ingestion

the taking in of nutrients/food

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digestion

the breakdown of complex organic molecules into smaller components by mechanical and chemical means

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absorption

the taking up of digested molecules into the cells of the digestive tract through the cell membrane.

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4

egestion

the removal of undigested waste food materials and some metabolic wastes from the body

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5

alimentary canal

the passage through which food passes from mouth to anus

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6

accessory organs

organs that secrete chemicals into the digestive system: salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

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mechanical digestion

physical breakdown of food into smaller particles through processes such as chewing, grinding, and churning

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8

bolus

a small rounded mass of (chewed) food, at the moment of swallowing

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9

peristalsis

a wave of contraction and relaxation of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the alimentary canal, by which the contents are forced along the tube.

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10

oesophagus

A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach in which consumed food and liquid travel down

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11

stomach

large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food, by releasing enzymes

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12

small intestine

long, coiled digestive organ where most chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients from digested food takes place

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13

large intestine

The last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body

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14

liver

a large organ, involved in processing nutrients, producing bile, and regulating blood sugar.

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15

gall bladder

An organ located beneath the liver that stores bile from the liver and releases it as needed into the small intestine

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16

duodenum

first part of the small intestine

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17

ileum

the last and longest portion of the small intestine

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18

pancreas

located near the stomach, 2 roles

exocrine role: to produce digestive enzymes and deliver to the small intestine

endocrine role: to secrete insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream, regulate blood glucose levels.

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19

serosa

outermost layer of small intestine, consists of a thin connective tissue that is in contact with body cavities

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20

longitudinal muscles

responsible for contractions that move contents through digestive tract responsible for peristalsisalong walls of intestine

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21

circular muscles

responsible for peristalsis arranged along walls of small intestine

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22

submucosa

layer of connective tissue directly under the mucosa of SI contains arge veins and arteries which give rise to the capillary bed of the mucosa

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23

mucosa

The innermost layer of small intestine comprised of epithelium, connective tissue, smooth muscle (villi)

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24

nucleases

enzyme, breaks down nucleic acids

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25

maltase

enzyme, breaks down maltose into glucose.

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26

lactase

enzyme that breaks down lactose into galactose and glucose

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27

exopeptidases

enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds at the ends of protein or peptide molecules, releasing individual amino acids or smaller peptides

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28

dipeptidases

enzymes that break down dipeptides into individual amino acids, during protein digestion.

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29

goblet cell

a specialized epithelial cell that secretes mucus to protect and lubricate the lining of various organs, notably the respiratory and digestive tracts.

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epithelium

tissue that lines the surfaces of organs and body cavities - involved in protection, absorption, and secretion

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villi

finger-like projections found in the lining of the small intestine that increase the surface area for nutrient absorption. extensions of mucosa

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32

microvilli

tiny, hair-like extensions on the villi of the small intestine, further increase the absorptive surface area and enhance nutrient absorption

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33

lymph

colourless fluid that carries white blood cells, nutrients and waste products

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34

dextrins

very small polymers still containing the α-1,6 glycosidic bond

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35

dialysis

the separation of smaller molecules from larger molecules in solution by selective diffusion through a partially permeable membrane

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36

arteries

blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart. bring oxygenated blood to the body's cells

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capillaries

blood vessels that connect arteries and veins transport blood/nutrients/oxygen to cellsare the smallest blood vessels

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38

veins

blood vessels that carry blood back to your heart

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39

arteriole

small blood vessels that branches off from an artery, connects to capillaries.

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40

capillary bed

interwoven network of capillaries. When blood leaves an arteriole, it enters a capillary bed rather than a single capillary

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41

vasoconstriction

narrowing of blood vessels. occurs when arteries contract, releasing blood to arterioles

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42

vasodilation

widening of blood vessels, increasing blood flow into arteries

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43

lumen

inside space within a tubular structure

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44

plasma

the fluid in which blood cells are suspended liquid part of blood

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45

atrioventricular valve

valves that separate the atria from ventricles, preventing backflow during systole

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46

semi lunar valves: aortic valve or pulmonary valve

Valves on either side of the heart that controls exit from the ventricles. located at connections between: pulmonary artery and R ventricleaorta and L ventricle prevent backflow from arteries into ventricles

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47

sinoatrial node (SA node)

pacemaker of the heart determines heart rategenerates electrical signal that causes atria to contract

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48

atrioventricular node (AVN)

located between ventricles and atria, cluster of cells that receives signal from SA node, passing it to the ventricles, causing them to pump delays signal to ventricles

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49

medulla

in brain - monitors blood pressure and carbon dioxide concentrations using receptors in the arteries.

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50

diastole

relaxation/ventricular filling

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51

systole

ventricular contraction phase of heartbeat, heart pumps blood from chambers into arteries

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52

leptin

a satiety hormone made in adipose tissue. Helps regulate energy balance by acting on hypothalamus, inhibiting hunger

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53

nervous system

brain, spinal cord, nerveshas cells that transmit electrical signals to control and coordinate various bodily functions.

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54

parasympathetic nervous system

a set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state speeds up digestion to normal rate

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55

erythrocytes

red blood cells - carry oxygen

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56

hepatic artery

carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the liver, branch of the aorta

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57

endothelium

a type of epithelium composed of a single layer of smooth, thin cells that lines the heart, blood vessels, lymphatics, and serous cavities.

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58

cardiac muscle

type of striated muscle found in the wall of the heart

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59

atria

atriums of the heart that receive blood from the body and lungs, pass it to ventricles

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60

ventricles

receive blood from atria, then pass blood to the body

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61

right ventricle

pumps blood to pulmonary circulation/the lungs

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left ventricle

pumps blood to systemic circulation/body - passes blood to aorta

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aorta

largest ventricle, receives blood from left ventricle, carries oxygenated blood to the body

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64

pulmonary veins

brings in oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium

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65

pulmonary artery

receives deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle/pulmonary vein, carries it to the blood to be oxygenated

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left atrioventricular valve/bicuspid valve/mitral valve

regulates flow of oxygenated blood from left atrium into left ventricle prevents backflow receives blood from left atrium

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67

right atrioventricular valve/tricuspid valve

regulates flow of blood from the right atrium to the right ventricle

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68

left semilunar valve/aortic valve

regulates blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta prevents backflow

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69

right semilunar valve/pulmonary valve

regulates blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery prevents backflow

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70

inferior vena cava

large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body to the right atrium

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71

superior vena cava

large vein that brings deoxygenated blood from the upper body to the left atrium

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72

refractory period

Time for cardiac muscle cell membrane to be ready for a second stimulus.

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73

semi-lunar valve

heart valve that prevents the backflow of blood from the major arteries (such as the aorta and pulmonary artery) into the ventricles of the heart

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74

atrial systole

Contraction of the atria of the heart, pushing blood into the ventricles.

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75

ventricular systole

Contraction of the ventricles, forcing blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta.

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76

ventricular diastole

Relaxation of the ventricles, allowing them to fill with blood from the atria.

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77

bundle of His

special bundle of cardiomyocytes, transmits electrical signals from the AV node to the heart ventricles

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78

cardiomyocytes

also called cardiac muscle cells - specialised heart muscle cells, responsible for contractile function

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79

purkinje fibres

located on walls of the ventricles, they carry the electrical signal from the bundle of his - rapidly distribute the signal to large number of ventricular muscle cells

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80

windpipe

trachea

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81

bronchus

one of the two tubes that connect the lungs with the trachea

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82

alveoli

tiny air sacs in the lung, assist in gas exchange between air and blood

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83

Type I pneumocytes

type of alveolus cells

  • extremely thin, adapted to carry out gas exchange

  • very flat and thin, increasing SA for diffusion

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84

Type II pneumocytes

type of alveolus cells

  • secrete a solution containing surfactant

  • surfacants create moist lining of alveoli (helps to prevent sticking, moisture helps gases dissolve)

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85

diaphragm

Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing

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86

larynx

voice box; passageway for air moving from throat/pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

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87

inspiration

breathing in (inhalation)

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88

expiration

breathing out (exhalation)

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89

antagonistic muscles

muscle pairs arranged to work against each other to move a joint

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90

internal intercostal muscles

muscles located in ribcage - active in expiration inspiration: relaxes back to elongated state expiration: muscles that contract, pulling ribcage inwards and downwards

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91

diaphragm during inhalation and exhalation

inhalation: moves down, flattens exhalation: moves up, becomes domed

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92

ribcage during inhalation and exhalation

inhalation: moves up and outwards exhalation: moves down and inwards

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93

volume change during inhalation and exhalation

inhalation: increases exhalation: decreases

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94

external intercostal muscles

muscles in ribcage - active in inspiration inspiration: muscles that contract, pulling ribcage upwards and outwards expiration: relaxes back to elongated state

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95

cardiac notch

a concave space on the left lung in which the heart lies

  • left lung has two lobes while the right has three to make space for heart

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96

tumour

abnormal groups of cells that develop at any stage of life in any part of the body

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97

benign tumours

groups of abnormal cells that adhere to each other and do not invade other tissues or parts of the body

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98

malignant tumours

Tumours which spread throughout the body and invade other tissue

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99

metastasis

development of a second malignant growth away from site of original growth

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100

carcinogens example

cancer-causing agents

  • tobacco

  • asbestos

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