PSY333: Measurement & Testing (some level of finals)

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Psychology

131 Terms

1

Cattell

"First used the term ""mental tests"""

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2

Binet

Associated with the first modern-day intelligence test (measure higher mental processes)

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3

Wundt

First psychological laboratory that used experimental research

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4

Terman

First use of the term intelligence quotient (IQ); revised Binet

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5

Thorndike

Associated with the Stanford Achievement Test

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6

WWI

What was the era that first widely used group testing?

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7

Army Alpha

Group administation of intelligence test for the military; reading literacy

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8

Army Beta

Used as an intelligence test, but is the language-free version

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9

Thorndike

Research on vocational assessments

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10

Miner

Person involved in occupation selection for large groups of high school students

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11

Strong

First -- much more general career counseling for the future aptitude tests

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12

Woodworth's Personal Data Sheet

First modern personality inventory (WWI); measured suspectibility to mental health problems

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13

aptitude

measure whether or not you're ready for something

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14

Step 1: Determine the goals of your client

"Defines purpose of test; demographics are considered; what context the test is on
"Defines purpose of test; demographics are considered; what context the test is on<br>
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15

Step 2: Choose instrument types to reach client goals

Asks the questions: What behaviors, content, skills is it intended to measure? What is the that the trait is based on? What about subsets/domains it is based on? Operationalization of test forms.
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16

Step 3: Access information about possible instruments

Item formats are determined; test is written and item reviewers make sure it measures what is intended to measure

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Step 4: Examine validity, reliability, cross-cultural, fairness, and practicality of the possible instruments

Before this is done, a pilot test is done to make sure the items are valid, reliable, and fair, among other items. , this happens.
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18

pilot test

Validation process

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19

Step 5: Choose an Instrument Wisely

Determines test length, testing time, scoring approaches, and test procedures, administers test materials.

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20

Level A

Tests which can be administered, scored, and interpreted by laypeople

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21

Level B

Tests that require a psychology degree or coursework in testing

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22

Level C

Tests that require an advanced psychology degree, a license and/or advanced training for that particular test

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23

cognitive sources of construct-irrelevant variance

Knowledge or skill not related to the purpose of the test is required to answer an item correctly.

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24

affective sources of construct-irrelevant variance

Language or images causes strong emotions that may interfere with the ability to respond to an item correctly (i.e. political opinions, beliefs)

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25

physical sources of construct-irrelevant variance

aspects of tests interfere with the test takers' ability to attend to, see, hear, or sense the items or stimuli (consider disabled people!)

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26

correlation coefficient

statistical relationship between two variables

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27

scatter plot

"Used to visually examine data, especially to discover patterns (such as curvilinear relationships)
"Used to visually examine data, especially to discover patterns (such as curvilinear relationships)<br\><img src\=""scatter plot.png""\>"
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28

positive relationship

"an increase in one variable is related to an increase in the other variable
"an increase in one variable is related to an increase in the other variable<br\><img src\=""pos relationship.png""\>"
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29

negative relationship

"an increase in one variable is related to a decrease in the other variable
"an increase in one variable is related to a decrease in the other variable<br\><img src\=""neg relationship.png""\>"
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30

no relationship

"two variables that are not related to each other
"two variables that are not related to each other<br\><img src\=""no relationship.png""\>"
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31

strong correlation

""
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32

moderate strength

±0.30 ~ 0.69"
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33

no strength

±.00 ~ 0.29"
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34

scores from a test is a consistent measure of individuals’ true scores

reliability

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35

correlation coefficient

To measure reliability, we use

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36

method error

caused by test administrators or the testing environment

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37

trait error

Error associated with test takers, subjects themselves

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38

test-retest reliability

Relationship between scores on the same test administered twice with a time interval between the administration

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39

practice effects

e.g., subjects may get better at second testing, subjects knowing how they answered in a similar test form

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40

alternate-forms reliability

Coefficients of two equivalent tests are compared (time interval)

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41

internal consistency

obtaining a reliability coefficient by assessing how items are correlated as a group

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42

split-half reliability

internal consistency; correlation between scores from even-numbered items and scores from odd-numbered items

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43

validity

whether a test measures what it is supposed to measure (
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44

content validity

Does the ______ ______ cover a representative sample of behaviors to be measured in its entirety? Content experts

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45

criterion validity

Does a test predict the target trait it is intended to measure?

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46

concurrent validity

Focuses on the prediction of current performance or psychological behavior

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47

predictive validity

Focuses on the prediction of future performance or psychological behavior

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48

construct validity

Does an assessment measure a theoretical construct that it is designed to measure (e.g., intelligence)?

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49

convergent validity

Are two assessments measuring the  construct related?
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50

discriminant validity

Are two asssessments measuring different constructs ?
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51

factor analysis

Found construct you want to measure from the test scores

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52

fairness

whether an individual's score is not affected by potential bias inherent in a test, test procedure and interpretation

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53

the 1960s (civil rights movement)

Fairness did not get much attention until

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54

fairness in testing process

Equal testing condition + proctors

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55

fairness as lack of measurement bias

Idea that all items should behave equally across all examinees

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56

fairness in access to the construct as measured

accessibility in testing; showing their status on target without being advantaged or disadvantaged by their individual characteristics or opportunity to learn

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57

differential item functioning

Statistical approach to examine test fairness by identifying items that perform differentially across subgroups of test takers while controlling for test takers' ability

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58

cognitive interview

examining response processes through probing questions

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59

achievement testing

tests that measure what one has learned
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60

aptitude testing

measure what one is capable of learning
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61

personality assessment

used to assess habits, temperament, likes and dislikes, character, and similar behaviors

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62

diagnostic tests

tests that assess problem areas of learning; often used to assess learning disabilities

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63

cognitive ability tests

tests that measure a broad range of cognitive ability
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64

intellectual and cognitive functioning

tests that measure a broad range of cognitive functioning in general intelligence, intellectual disabilities, giftedness, changes in overall cognitive functioning

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65

special aptitude tests

tests that measure one aspect of ability; likelihood of success in a vocation

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66

multiple aptitude tests

tests that measure many aspects of ability; likelihood of success in multiple vocations

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67

interest inventories

tests that measure likes and dislikes as well as one's personality orientation toward the world of work; career counseling

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68

classification methods

a tool whereby an individual identifies whether he or she has, or does not have, specific attributes or characteristics

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69

readiness tests

tests that measure one's readiness for moving ahead in school. used to assess readiness to enter first grade

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70

mental age/chronological age x 100

How do you calculate IQ (use / as a division sign)?

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71

Spearman-Brown formula

What formula is used for split-half reliability due to the test being cut in half?

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72
"bar graph<br\><img src\=""Screenshot 2023-02-08 114332.png""\>"
"bar graph
"visual for a categorical, discrete variable"
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"histogram<br\><img src\=""histogram.png""\>"
"histogram

visual for continuous variables

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74
"frequency polygon<br\><img src\=""freq_poly.jpg""\>"
"frequency polygon

used to see the distributional shape of data

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75

positively skewed

"(Type of curve)
"(Type of curve)<br\><img src\=""paste-2fe6b0bb553a7741fc5cf57bc207a669dd093661.jpg""\>"
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76

negatively skewed

"(Type of curve)
"(Type of curve)<br\><img src\=""negative skewed.png""\>"
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77

Mode < Median < Mean

"Left to right, how are measures of central tendency distributed in positively skewed distributions?
"Left to right, how are measures of central tendency distributed in positively skewed distributions?<br\><img src\=""positively skewed.png""\>"
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Mode > Median > Mean
"Left to right, how are measures of central tendency distributed in negatively skewed distributions?
"Left to right, how are measures of central tendency distributed in negatively skewed distributions?<br\><img src\=""negative skewed.png""\>"
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79

variance

avg of squared distance from the mean

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80

deviation score

the difference between an individual score and the mean

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81

norm referenced

scores that are compared to a set of test scores called the norm group

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82

criterion-referenced scores

scores are compared to a predetermined standard; i.e. mastering a certain level of knowledge, used for diagnoses

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83

percentile

proportion of people falling at and below a score in a standard normal distribution

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84

T-scores

µ = 50, σ = 10; used for personality tests

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85

deviation IQ

µ = 100, σ = 15; used for tests of intelligence

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86

Stanines

µ = 5, σ = 2, round to nearest whole number; used for achievement testing

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87

Sten scores

µ = 5.5, σ = 2, round to nearest whole number; used for personality inventories and questionnaires

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88

NCE scores

µ = 50, σ = 21.06; used for educational tests

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89

SAT scores

µ = 500, σ = 100

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90

ACT scores

µ = 21, σ = 5

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91

Publisher type scores

µ and σ are artbitrarily set by publisher

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92

SEM

σ of test scores x √1 - reliability of a test

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93

standard error of measurement

Tells us how much error there is in the test and ultimately how much any individual's score might fluctuate due to this error

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94

comprehension

problems with the _____ of questions

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95

information retrieval

failure in the information retrieving to answer (related to background characteristics)

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96

decision process

low motivation/intention of faking or impression enhancement

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97

response process

mismatch in the choice of response option; difference in interpretation of option meanings

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98

interquartile range formula

<p></p>
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99

Deviation score

X (raw score) - M (mean score)

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100

Variance

Deviation score squared

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