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Cells

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159 Terms

1

Cells

basic unit of human life

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Tissue

formed by groups of cells with similar structure

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3

Organ

formed by a group of tissues that perform a specific function

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4

Organ system

a group of organs that perform a specific function together.

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5

Muscle Tissue

consists of long individual cells or fibers bound together by connective tissues

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6

Skeletal muscle

muscle that is attached to the skeleton, and is involved in voluntary body movement

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7

Cardiac muscle

muscle that is involved in heart contractions, forms the major part of the heart and is involved in involuntary movement.

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Smooth muscle

found within the walls of internal organs, involved in the involuntary movement of internal organs

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9

Voluntary muscles

can be controlled by our conscious thought.

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10

Involuntary muscles

do not require conscious thought for them to move. They are controlled subconsciously by the nervous system.

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11

Connective Tissue

Strengthen, support, protect, bind, or connect cells and tissues.

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12

Nervous Tissue

Control the coordinated activities of the body.

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13

Epithelial Tissue

Covers the body and provides a lining for organ walls.

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14

Homeostasis

A state of balance among all the body systems needed for the body to survive and function correctly.

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15

Normal Level - Body temp

36.2-37.2°C

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16

Normal Level - Blood pH

7.35-7.45

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17

Normal Level - Resting Heart Rate

50-100 bpm

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18

Normal Level - Resting respiratory rate

16-20 breaths per minute

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19

Fever

high body temperature

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20

Hypothermia

low body temperature

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21

Acidosis

low pH

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Alkalosis

high pH

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Tachycardia

fast heart rate

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24

Bradycardia

slow heart rate

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Hyperventilation

high respiratory rate

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Hypoventilation

low respiratory rate

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27

Integumentary System

Function - Covers and protects the body, Receives sensory information, Glands help control body temperature

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Skeletal System

Function - provides framework for muscles to attach to, Supports body, Allows for movement, Protects the soft organs, Makes blood cells, Stores minerals such as calcium.

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Muscular System

Function - Works with skeletal system to provide movement of body parts (e.g. arms, legs, head). Moves materials within the body and organs (e.g. in the stomach). Maintains posture.

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Digestive System

Function - Ingestion – Takes in food Digestion – Breaks down food Absorption of nutrients Elimination of solid wastes

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Respiratory System

Function- • Controls breathing • Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and external environment.

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32

Circulatory System

Function - • Transportation of blood, hormones, nutrients, gases, and wastes throughout the body. • Helps to regulate body temperature, fluid balance, and pH.

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Nervous System

Function - Gathers and interprets sensory information from outside and inside the body and coordinates response. • Coordinates the functions of the organ systems

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Endocrine System

Function - • Produces and releases hormones • Helps to coordinate the organ systems • Responds to stress • Controls growth and development • Helps to regulate fluid balance, pH, and metabolism

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Excretory System

Function - • Elimination of liquid wastes from the body (urine, sweat). • Helps to control fluid balance and pH.

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36

Reproductive System

Function - • Produces eggs (in females) and sperm (in males). • Produces estrogen, testosterone, and other sex hormones. • In females, allows for the growth and delivery of offspring.

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37

Lymphatic System

Function - Protects the body from disease Circulates lymph Absorbs and transports fats

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38

List the three main components of the circulatory system

Blood, blood vessels, the heart

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39

Various functions of the circulatory system

Carries oxygen from lungs to all body cells, Carries CO2 from all body cells to the lungs, Takes wastes (ex. ammonia, uric acid, urea) from body cells to kidney, Helps maintain body temperature and pH levels, Heals wounds by blood clots, Fights infections by pathogens, white blood cells make antibodies, Transport control chemicals (ex. hormones), Takes nutrients from the duodenum to all body cells (ex. Amino acids, simple sugars, fatty acids)

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40

Erythrocytes

Carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells, and carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs. (Almost half of the blood volume) made in bone marrow

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41

Leukocytes

Destroy pathogens and damaged cells, produce enzymes for detoxification, and produce antibodies for the immune system. (Less than 1% of blood volume) Granular made in bone marrow / non-granular in lymphoid tissue

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42

Platelets

form clots at the site of damage to a blood vessel and stop the flow of blood. (less than 1% of blood volume)

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43

Plasma

a protein rich liquid that carries the other blood cells through the blood vessels. (over half of blood volume)

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44

Explain the relationship between hemoglobin and erythrocytes as it relates to transporting oxygen around the body

Erythrocytes contain hemoglobin which is a molecule that allows them to bind oxygen.

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45

Explain why we have so many more erythrocytes than leukocytes

Erythrocytes are much more numerous than leukocytes since they are responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body, whereas leukocytes are responsible for fighting infections. We require a great deal of oxygen, and our bodies are not usually under attack from infections, meaning we need much larger numbers of erythrocytes than leukocytes.

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46

Arteries (Functions)

Carry blood AWAY from the heart to lungs and body

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47

Veins (Functions)

Bring blood TO the heart from lungs and body

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48

Capillaries (Functions)

Exchange O2 (to body cells) and CO2 (from body cells)

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49

Arteries (Internal Diameter)

Muscular Walls

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50

Veins (Internal Diameter)

Thin walls, largest diameter.

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51

Capillaries (Internal Diameter)

VERY small (only 1 cell wide)

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52

Arteries (Average Blood Pressure)

120/80 mm Hg (Highest)

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53

Veins (Average Blood Pressure)

~100/70 mm Hg (Lower)

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54

Capillaries (Average Blood Pressure)

Lowest

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55

Arteries (Vessel Wall)

Thick and muscular, Circular

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56

Veins (Vessel Wall)

Some muscle, More oval

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57

Capillaries (Vessel Wall)

Thinnest wall,, Allows gasses, nutrients, wastes to diffuse into cells.

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58

Arteries (Elasticity)

Very Elastic

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59

Veins (Elasticity)

Slightly Elastic

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60

Arteries (Special Features)

Elastic membrane

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61

Veins (Special Features)

Has valves to prevent backwards flow

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62

Capillaries (Special Features)

VERY thin wall (only 1 cell thick)

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63

Bicuspid Valve

Controls the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle, Prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium

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64

Tricuspid Valve

Controls the flow of blood between the right atrium and right ventricle, Prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium

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65

Pulmonary Valve

Controls the flow of blood out of the right ventricle, Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle

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66

Aortic Valve

Controls the flow of blood out of the left ventricle, Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle

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67

Pulmonary Circuit (FUNCTION)

carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs and oxygenated blood back to the heart

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68

Pulmonary Circuit (ORDER)

right ventricle → pulmonary artery → lungs → pulmonary veins → left atrium

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69

Systemic Circuit (FUNCTION)

carries oxygenated blood to the body tissues and deoxygenated blood back to the heart

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70

Systemic Circuit (ORDER)

left ventricle → aorta → body tissues → Superior/Inferior vena cava → right atrium

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71

What causes “lub” and “dub”

Both noises are caused by the closing of heart valves

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72

‘Lub sound’

Heart contracts, pressure increases, tricuspid and bicuspid close, This contraction is known as systole

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73

‘Dub sound’

Heart relaxes, pressure decreases, aortic and pulmonary valves close, This relaxation is known as diastole

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74

Systolic pressure

caused by the contraction of ventricles, normally 120mmHg

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75

Diastolic pressure

when the heart relaxes and the atria and ventricles fill with blood, normally 80 mmHg

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76

How is blood pressure recorded

Systolic P/Diastolic P e.g. 120/80 mmHg

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77

Explain what Rh factor is and the difference between being Rh- and Rh+

Rh factor is a protein found in blood. If you have it,

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78

you are considered Rh+, if you do not have it you are Rh-.

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79

Explain what happens when blood with a specific antigen is mixed with the same antibody. (e.g type A blood is mixed with antibody A)

Substances called antibodies may also be present in the plasma. These react with the antigens, causing the two types of cells to clump together.

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80

Explain why blood plasma is not given to patients

Plasma contains the antibodies which could cause clumping/clotting of blood.

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81

Explain the terms “Universal Donor” and “Universal Recipient” as it relates to blood types

O- are “universal donors” - Type O blood cells have NEITHER antigen and therefore will not react (clump/clot) with the antibodies found in people’s plasma. Rh factor is also absent in O- blood, meaning it can be given to any patient. AB are “universal recipients” They have both A and B antigens and neither antibody, so they can receive any blood type.

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82

Explain how a person's blood type can be determined

By mixing samples of blood w/ serums

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83

Explain what a myocardial infarction is and what causes one to happen

occurs when the blood supply to an area of the heart is blocked, preventing oxygen from getting to the heart tissue, and resulting in tissue death.

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84

Electrocardiogram

graph showing the electrical signals of the heart. It is useful as it can be used to determine if the heart rate and rhythm are normal or abnormal

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85

Explain what coronary bypass surgery is and why it is necessary: If angioplasty is not effective or appropriate, there are other procedures that can be used to treat blockages of the coronary arteries. Coronary bypass surgery is the most common of these procedures. The name of this procedure is appropriate because the surgery uses a piece of a vein from another part of the body (a vein graft) to bypass the blocked area of the coronary artery in order to supply blood to the area beyond the blockage This surgery is much more complicated than angioplasty because it involves opening the chest and operating directly on the heart. This procedure is commonly referred to as open-heart surgery. Both the hospitalization and the recovery periods are much longer than for angioplasty.

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86

Coronary Artery Disease

Blockage of the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle.

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87

Arrhythmias

Malfunctions of the electrical system that controls the heartbeat.

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88

Valve Disorders

Dysfunction of one or more of the heart valves.

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89

Heart Muscle Disease

Inflammation or infection of the heart muscle itself.

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90

Ingestion

Food is taken into the body.

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91

Digestion

Food is broken down into individual nutrients both physically and chemically.

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92

Absorption

Nutrients are moved into the blood and sent to body tissues.

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93

Elimination

Solid wastes are passed out of the body.

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94

List the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, in order, starting in the mouth and ending at the anus

Mouth • Esophagus • Stomach • Small Intestine • Large Intestine • Rectum • Anus

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95

List the four accessory organs of the digestive system and describe, in general, the function of these organs.

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96

Accessory Organs

(food does not travel through these organs) • Liver • Gallbladder • Pancreas - Salivary Glands - The accessory organs produce and store the chemicals needed for chemical digestion.

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97

Physical Digestion

Food molecules are mechanically broken down / Large food pieces -

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98

Chemical Digestion

Food molecules are chemically broken down / Protein -

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99

Chemical secretion (small intestine/fats) emulsifying fat droplets

Bile

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100

Enzyme (mouth/complex carbs) Polysaccharides -

Disaccharides

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