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What are some examples of organisations produced through the bretton woods foundation?

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1

What are some examples of organisations produced through the bretton woods foundation?

  • world bank

  • IMF

  • WTO

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2

What were the primary goals of the institutions set up by the Bretton woods foundation?

  • promote reconstruction of the post war economy in Europe

  • fix exchange rate of dollar and provide loans to countries that need it

  • to reduce trade tariffs

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3

What are the 3 aspects of cultural globalisation?

  • Americanisation

  • super territorialisation

  • spread of liberal values

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4

What is political globalisation?

  • the increase in states willing to cooperate internationally in order to solve problems

  • the spread of homogenisation of political ideas

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5

What issues require global cooperation?

  • security threats

  • climate change

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6

What's an example of pooled sovereignty?

The UN Paris climate change conference in 2015, where states agreed to prevent temperature increases above 2%.

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7

What does the EU have pooled sovereignty on?

  • trade

  • environmental laws

  • safety standards

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8

What is Fukuyama's End of History?

liberal democracy had triumphed after the end of the cold war when the USSR fell apart.

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9

What does Fukuyama believe is the main cause of wars in recent years?

The clash of civilisations between an increasingly globalised Islam and the west. This can be seen in the Arab springs were the Syrian government is backed by Russia, rebel forces by the west and ISIS by Saudi Arabia.

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10

What is the Westphalian System?

Global organization of modern nations

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11

What is an example of a political governance institution?

Nuclear non proliferation treaty

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12

What is an example of a human rights government institution?

UN

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13

How have TNC's put pressure on governments to reduce taxes?

This is because TNC's choose to locate their HQ's in low tax areas such as the jersey islands or Ireland.

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14

Why is the EU trying to stop tnc's locating their HQ's in low tax countries?

This is due to the fact that decisions in one state to lower taxes will impact on tax revenues with another state.

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15

What are factors that make up a nation?

  • self-identifying community

  • no necessarily recognised by international community

  • doesn't need defined territory

  • may have it's own language, culture and religion

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16

What must a state have?

population, territory, sovereignty, government

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17

What are examples of disputes against territory?

  • Falkland Islands (UK and Argentina)

  • Kashmir (India and Pakistan)

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18

Why is Antarctica not a state?

It doesn't have a permanent population

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19

What is an example of a failed state?

Syria (the government lost most of the control to rebels and ISIS)

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20

What criteria need to be met to be a nation-state?

  • represents political wishes of the nation and has authority and legitimacy

  • self-governing

  • based on the principle of self-determination

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21

What are examples of nations without a state?

  • Scotland

  • Catalonia

  • Kurdistan

  • Basque Country

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22

Why do the Kurds want their independence?

They feel as though they are a persecuted minority and some kurds have started using violence against the Turkish state to push for independence. In Syria they have fought ISIS to gain some sort of autonomy and in Iraq they do have autonomy and de facto are their own state.

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23

Why is it unlikely that Kurdistan will gain independence?

The sovereign countries will be reluctant to give territory up

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24

How is the Turkish republic of northern Cyprus not a recognised state?

  • Those with a TRNC passport cannot enter other states

  • TRNC is not a member of the united nations

  • TRNC does not have any internet domain letters

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25

In what was is globalisation challenged by nation-states?

  • Increase in TNC's

  • Intergovernmentalism

  • The internet

  • Non-governmental organisations

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26

What are some problems with the UDHR?

  • doesn't stop TNC's from taking land from indigenous people

  • can only use soft persuasive power

  • cannot be used to force sanctions

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27

What happened after the Cold war?

A large increase in humanitarian intervention

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28

How many Tutsis were killed in Rwanda before the intervention?

800,000

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29

What what COP convention was an agreement made?

COP26

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30

How many were killed in Bangladesh 2013 after the collapse of the Rana Plaza garment factory?

1,129

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31

What is the responsibility to protect 2005?

This is the belief that declaring sovereignty is conditional upon a nation state protecting their citizens from genocide, war crimes and ethnic cleansing'.

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32

What countries have known to reject the findings of the ECHR?

Russia and Turkey

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33

What does Branco Milanovich's elephant graph show?

  • rising incomes in emerging economies

  • decline of developed middle class

  • booming global elite

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34

What happened to the cotton 4?

The cotton 4 were relied heavily on cotton exports for employment and foreign exchange earnings, however now this is being dominated by the US cotton industry.

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35

How has India's poverty levels decreased?

They have decreased by 23% due to entering the global market through IT training and selling IT services to the world.

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36

What had the global extreme poverty rates decreased from in 1990?

36% to 10% in 2015

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37

What is the average number of children in Niger?

7

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38

What has outsourcing let to?

The average annual growth rates was 7.5% compared to 4.5% in developed countries.

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39

According to figures, what % of people across the world are put into extreme poverty due to Covid-19?

1.4%

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40

How long did the trial of lumbanga take?

8 years

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41

How many people died during the Rwandan genocide?

1 million

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42

How many UN peacekeeping troops were withdrawn after 10 belgian soliders were shot in rwanda

2,500

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43

how many died in the rwandan masacre

over 100

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44

how many weapons did the UN destroy in Sierra Leone

42,000

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45

How many Sierra Leonian soliders were disarmed

75,000

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46

Until when were there only cases of African leaders at the ICC?

2016

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47

How many muslim boys and men in Srebrencia were killed?

8,000

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48

How many Dutch soldiers were supposed to be protecting those who were taking refuge in Srebrenica?

600

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49

How many countries have signed up to the rome statute?

124

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50

What are the 4 factors leading to humanitarian intervention success?

  • feasibility of intervention

  • mandate from the UNSC

  • Commitment to nation-building

  • Legitimacy of the government within the state

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51

Why was Sierra Leone a humanitarian intervention success?

  • cultural awareness as it was an ex colony - british support requested by legitimate government

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52

Why was the Ivory coast a humanitarian intervention success?

  • good cultural understanding

  • coast can lead to good navy access

  • previous president was taken into custody and a rival election winning party was waiting to take power.

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53

Why was East Timor a humanitarian intervention success?

  • robust UN mandate for Australian intervention

  • Australian intervention with UN endorsement, robust commitment to nation building, troops trained in counter insurgency.

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54

Why was Kosovo a humanitarian intervention success?

  • The UNSC authorised a no fly zone and bombed serbian targets

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55

How many lives did the Somalian intervention save from famine?

100,000

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56

Why was Afganistan a humanitarian intervention failure?

  • huge and difficult territory and lack of local and cultural understanding/language

  • the new elected governments had lots of corruption and were not accepted by all tribal groups

  • commitment to nation building was undermined by tribal loyalties and massive corruption.

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57

Why was Iraq a humanitarian intervention failure?

  • lack of understanding between sunni and shia tensions

  • only us and uk intervetion with no UN mandate

  • invasion destroyed the government and created a power vacuum

  • under the new government sunnis were marginalised

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58

Why was Bosnia a humanitarian intervention failure?

  • lacked a strong mandate from the UNSC due to Russian alliance with serbs and US failure to acknowledge the extent of the aggression against muslims.

  • passive in the face of the Srebrencia massacre

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59

Why was Libya a humanitarian intervention failure?

  • No commitment to nation-building, no fly zone allowed rebels to kill Gaddafi and create a power vacuum

  • intervention allowed two rival governments to emerge, both are still fighting for supremacy and the country is divided.

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60

what lead the world bank to intervene in Zambia?

copper prices decreasing and drought

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61

What did the world bank do in order to increase the economy?

  • privatised healthcare

  • sold mines to Indian companies

  • cut education spending by 60%

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62

What happened as a result of the world bank intervention in Zambia?

  • Infant mortality doubled

  • life expectancy decreased by 9 years

  • business went bankrupt

  • 60,000 were left unemployed

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63

How much did the IMF tell the Argentina government to tighten their budget by?

4.4% of GDP

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64

How much did Argentinian GDP decrease after IMF intervention?

2.2%

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65

How much did poverty increase by in Argentina after IMF intervention?

50%

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66

How much did investment increase in Argentina after IMF intervention?

35%

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67

What country did the UN general assembly censure?

South Africa

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68

What referendum did the UN general assembly say wasn't legal?

Crimea 2014

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69

How much of a majority do votes need in the general assembly?

2/3

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70

What country was barred for many years from serving on UN commissions due to Arab states blocking them?

Israel

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71

How many peace keeping missions has the UNSC authorised?

over 70

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72

What country has the UNSC put sanctions against due to it being a threat?

North Korea

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73

How many temporary representatives does ECOSOC have?

54

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74

How many judges are from africa/europe in the ICJ

2/7

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75

What two countries where taken to the ICJ in 1992 over disputes of oil land?

El Salvador and Honduras

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76

Whats is an example of an advisory opinion that has helped prepare for post-conflict settlements?

South Africa's acceptance of Namibia's independence in 1989

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77

What % of states have signed an agreement by the ICJ to be bound to its decisions?

1/3

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78

How many cases from the ICC are self-referrals due to a collapsed court system?

70%

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79

How many states have had cases within them from the ICC?

20

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80

What countries are outside the jurisdiction of the court unless the UNSC refers their case?

China, India, USA and Russia (home to 70%) of the worlds population

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81

How much has the ICC cost over 18 years?

£1.5 billion

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82

How many major convictions has the ICC had?

3

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83

What % of global military expenditure is made by NATO states?

70%

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84

What has NATO stepped up on to prevent?

cyper-terroism activity

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85

What countries do spend the required 2% on NATO?

Poland, Baltics, hungary, slovakia, romania and bulgaria

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86

What country doesn't spend the required 2% on NATO?

Germany

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87

What members of the EU are not members of NATO?

Finland, Sweden and Ukraine

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88

What article means collective defence in Europe?

Article 42 of the Lisbon treaty

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89

What % of economic growth was there between 1950-1960?

4.4%

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90

What countries have the IMF increased quotas for?

BRICS countries

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91

What % of voting rights does the US have in the IMF?

17%

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92

What % is needed for a majority in the IMF?

85%

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93

How much does the World Bank aim to cut absolute poverty to by 2030?

less than 3%

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94

What bottom % of countries does the world bank want to boost economically?

40%

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95

How much did the US spend on military in 2016?

$600 billion

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96

How much did the US spend on development in 2016?

$63 billion

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97

What examples have there been for unsustainable growing?

Cutting down trees and draining marshland

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98

What where the average goods tarrifs in 1949/2000

40%/3%

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99

How many $ of debt did the G7 cancel in 1999?

$100 billion

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100

The G20 is home to what % of the population?

2/3

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