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Cardiac cycle

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222 Terms

1

Cardiac cycle

one complete heartbeat that includes contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of both atria (upper heart chambers) and both ventricles (lower heart chambers

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2

cardiovascular system

composed of the heart and blood vessels that deliver oxygen and nutrients to the body cells and carry away cellular wastes

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3

Heart

hollow muscular organ that receives blood from the veins and propels blood through the arteries

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4

Apex

the lower pointed end of the heart formed by the left ventricle

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5

Coronary circulation

blood supply to the heart tissue

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6

Septum

wall of heart tissue separating the right and left sides

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7

Atrium

upper receiving chamber of the heart; right and left atria

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8

Ventricle

lower pumping chamber of the heart; right and left ventricle

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9

Endocardium

inner lining of the heart

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10

Myocardium

middle muscular layer of heart tissue

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11

Epicardium

outer lining of the heart

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12

Pericardium

sac around the heart that facilitates movement of the heart as it beats

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13

Aortic valve

heart valve between the left ventricle and aorta (main artery of the heart)

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14

mitral valve

heart valve between the left ventricle and aorta

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15

pulmonary valve

heart valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery; also called the semilunar valve due to the half moon shape of its three cusps

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16

Tricuspid valve

heart valve between the right atrium and right ventricle

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17

Blood vessels

tubular structures that transport blood

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18

Capillary

microscopic thin walled vessel connecting the arterioles and venules where gas, nutrient, and waste exchange take place between the blood and cells of the body

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19

Lumen

interior space of the vessel

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20

Aorta

largest artery that begins as an arch from the left ventricle then branches and descends through the thoracic and abdominal cavities; carries oxygenated blood away from the heart

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21

Artery

blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

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22

Arteriole

small artery that connects an artery to a capillary

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23

Inferior vena cava

large vein carrying blood to the heart from the lower part of the body

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24

Superior vena cava

large vein carrying blood to the heart from the upper part of the body

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25

Venule

small vein that connects a capillary to a vein

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26

Vein

vessel carrying blood to the heart

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27

Lymph

clear fluid consisting of fluctuating amounts of white blood cells and a few red blood cells; bathes tissues and is removed by the lymph capillaries

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28

Lymph nodes

small bean shaped masses of lymphatic tissue that filter bacteria and foreign material from the lymph; located on larger lymph vessels in the cervical, mediastinal, axillary, and inguinal regions

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29

Lymphatic vessels

vessels transporting lymph from body tissues to the venous system

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30

Lymph capillaries

microscopic thin walled lymph vessels that pick up lymph, protein, and waste from body tissues

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31

Lymph ducts

the largest lymphatic vessels that transport lymph to the venous system; right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct

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32

angi/o

vessel, vascular

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33

aort/o

aorta

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34

arteri/o

artery

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35

ather/o

fatty, fatty deposit

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36

atri/o

atrium

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37

cardi/o

heart

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38

coron/o

crown

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39

electr/o

electric

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40

my/o

muscle

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41

phleb/o

vein

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42

pulmon/o

lung

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43

scler/o

hard

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44

son/o

sound, sound waves

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45

sphygm/o

pulse

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46

stoth/o

chest

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47

throac/o

chest, thorax

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48

thromb/o

blood clot

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49

valv/o, valvul/o

valve

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50

vas/o, vascul/o

blood vessel

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51

varic/o

swollen or twisted vein

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52

ven/i, ven/o

veins

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53

ventricul/o

normal cavity, ventricle

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54

Arteriovenous (AV)

relating to both an artery and a vein or both arteries and veins in general

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55

Atrioventricular (AV)

relating to both the atria and the ventricles of the heart

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56

Cardiovascular

pertaining to the heart and blood vessels

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57

Constriction

contracted or narrowed portion of a structure

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58

Cyanotic

pertaining to a blue or purple discoloration due to deoxygenated blood

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59

Deoxygenate

to remove oxygen

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60

Diastole

the relaxation phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood

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61

Ischemic

pertaining to a lack of blood flow

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62

Oxygenate

to add oxygen

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63

Paroxysmal

sudden

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64

Patent

open or exposed

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65

Precordial

pertaining to the portion of body over the heart and the anterior lower chest

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66

Sphygmic

pertaining to the pulse

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67

Stenotic

pertaining to the condition of narrowing

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68

Supraventricular

pertaining to above the ventricles

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69

Systole

the contraction phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries and ventricles

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70

Thoracic

pertaining to the chest

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71

Thrombotic

pertaining to the thrombus or blood clot

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72

Varicose

pertaining to a swollen or twisted vein

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73

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

chest pain and other signs and symptoms associated with cardiac ischemia

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74

Aneurysm

dilation of an artery; usually due to a weakness in the wall of the artery

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75

Angina pectoris

chest pain or pressure resulting from lack of blood flow to the myocardium

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76

Angiostenosis

narrowing of a blood vessel

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77

Aortic stenosis

narrowing of the aortic valve opening

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78

Arteriosclerosis, arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)

hardening or loss of elasticity of the arteries

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79

Atherosclerosis

buildup of plaque or fatty deposits on inner arterial walls

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80

Cardiac arrest

complete, sudden cessation of cardiac activity

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81

Cardiac tamponade

compression of the heart due to an increase of fluid in the pericardium

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82

Cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart

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83

Cardiomyopathy

disease of the heart muscle

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84

Cardiopathy

any disease of the heart

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85

Cardiovalvulitis

inflammation of the valves of the heart

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86

Coarctation of the aorta

narrowing of the aorta causing hypertension, ventricular strain, and ischemia

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87

congestive heart failure (CHF)

weakness of the heart causing an inability to circulate blood, leading to edema and fluid buildup in the lungs

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88

Coronary artery disease

narrowing of coronary arteries causing a decrease of blood flow or ischemia to the myocardium

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89

Coronary occlusion

blockage of a coronary vessel often leading to a myocardial infarction

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90

Embolus

vascular blockage made up of a thrombus, bacteria, air, plaque, and/or other foreign matter

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91

Endocarditis

inflammation of the endocardium, usually caused by bacterial infection somewhere else in the body

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92

Hypertension

persistently elevated blood pressure

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93

Hypotension

blood pressure that is below normal

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94

Intermittent claudication

cramping of the lower leg muscles, usually caused by lack of blood flow

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95

Ischemia

inadequate supply of blood to the tissues

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96

Mitral valve prolapse

backward movement of the mitral valve cusps allowing regurgitation (backflow of blood)

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97

Mitral valve stenosis

narrowing of the mitral valve opening, usually caused by scarring from rheumatic fever

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98

Murmur

abnormal heart sound

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99

myocardial infarction (MI)

death of heart tissue, usually due to coronary artery occlusion

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100

Myocarditis

inflammation of the heart muscle

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