Exam 1 (Ch.1-9)

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Which concept describes the processes of seeing and understanding the connections between individuals and the broader social contexts in which they live?

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1

Which concept describes the processes of seeing and understanding the connections between individuals and the broader social contexts in which they live?

sociological perspective

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2

Shaheen grew up in the middle class. For school, she volunteered at a soup kitchen and, for the first time, met individuals her own age who had grown up in poverty. Instead of dismissing these individuals as lazy, she sought to understand what social forces worked to shape her life differently from those she met at the soup kitchen. This is an example of

the sociological perspective

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3

A sociologist would understand the phenomena of poverty by examining __.

the ways that employment is structured

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4

A sociological understanding of homelessness would include all of the following EXCEPT __.

an individual’s personal failures at locating work

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5

Who used the term "sociological imagination" to describe a way of viewing the connections individuals have to their social worlds?

C. Wright Mills

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6

The systematic study of the relationship between individuals and society is called __.

sociology

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7

Which of the following statements regarding sociology is false?

You have to be a professional sociologist to look at the world from a sociological perspective.

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8

In order to understand our lives, sociologists would argue that we need to __.

examine the contexts in which we live

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9

During the Middle Ages, who or what dominated European intellectual life?

the Church and its clergy

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10

Which concept describes how logic and the systematic collection of evidence are used to support theories about the natural and social world?

science

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11

The historical period marked by a shift to urban industrial economies and increased faith in science and reason is known as __.

modernity

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12

All of the following are parts of the move toward modernity EXCEPT for __.

an increased confidence in religion

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13

Which of the following research questions would a sociologist ask?

How does being homeless impact people's ability to find work?

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14

Which of the following was NOT identified in the text as a key advantage to majoring in sociology?

Sociology focuses on the study of people

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15

Which of the following questions would a sociologist ask?

How does collecting government assistance impact future employment?

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16

Studies that describe and help us better understand some aspects of society are examples of __.

basic research

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17

Researchers who make their findings known to nonacademic audiences are engaging in __.

public sociology

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18

Studies that aim to understand and work toward solving social problems are referred to as __.

applied research

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19

Minoosh created a study to measure how different after-school programs affected students' grades. She will use her findings to help schools allocate funding into after-school programs. Her study is an example of __.

applied research

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20

Manuel interviewed new parents to learn how gender, both the parents' and the babies', shapes the interactions parents have with their babies. He is conducting __.

basic research

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21

Reina interviewed young girls about their perceptions of media images of women in order to understand how those images influenced the girls' self-esteem. She is conducting __.

basic research ?

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22

Evidence that is based in numbers is known as ________ data.

quantitative

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23

Evidence that is non-numerical, such as information gathered from interviews or observation, is known as ________ data.

qualitative

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24

Bryan collected homicide and suicide statistics from different cities so he could examine the relationship between these two causes of death. What kind of data is he using?

quantitative

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25

Heng uses interviews and field research to study how neighborhoods rebuild after natural disasters. What kind of data is he using?

qualitative

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26

Marisol conducted a study in which she counted the number of times world leaders used specific words in their speeches. What type of data is she using?

quantitative

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27

In a sociological study of the relationship between two variables, which one changes in response to changes in the other?

dependent variable

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28

In a sociological study of the relationship between variables, what is associated with and/or causes change in the value of the other?

independent variable

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29

Hengemeh conducted a study and found that individuals with more education tend to marry later and have fewer children. What is the independent variable in her study?

education

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30

In a study, Hans found that the length of a prison sentence varied based on the convict's race, social class, and number of prior arrests. What was the dependent variable in his study?

length of prison sentence

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31

In sociology, a _________Blank is a set of statements that seeks to explain the workings of social life.

theory

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32

According to this perspective, the individual parts of a society function together to sustain the whole.

functionalism

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33

Which of the following statements represents the symbolic interactionist theory?

Members of a family develop a shared understanding of their roles and relative positions as they interact on a daily basis.

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34

To ________ is to define variables in clear, quantifiable terms.

operationalize

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35

Which one of the following statements is not true?

  • The dependent variable changes in response to the independent variable.

  • The independent variable is not affected by the dependent variable.

  • In scientific research, a hypothesis is something that changes in a measurable way under different conditions.

  • The goal of sociological research is to identify and understand patterns among the variables of social life.

In scientific research, a hypothesis is something that changes in a measurable way under different conditions.

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36

Which research method involves field work and observation, in which the researcher collects information by closely watching a group or community?

ethnography

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37

________ involves using existing data that was collected for another purpose in a new research analysis.

Secondary analysis

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38

How does the statement "We are like fish in water" apply to the concept of culture?

Our culture seems natural to us and we take it as a given

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39

A large group of people who live together in a specific area and share a culture is known as a

society

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40

What is another way to refer to culture?

a way of life

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41

Priya attends a small, private, Catholic high school in the suburb in which she and her parents live. Her brothers and sister attend this school as well. She likes her friends and the education that she receives. Sometimes she is jealous of her friends in the public high school because they can wear whatever they like, and the rules are not as strict as in her high school. Priya knows that she needs to follow these rules. Her situation reflects culture operating at which level?

meso

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42

Cars, homes, and boats would be considered what aspect of culture?

material

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43

Where does nonmaterial culture exist?

in the world of thoughts and ideas

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44

In the United States, when stepping into an elevator, people often move to the back to allow others to get on or get off. This is an example of

a norm

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45

In many European democracies, citizens are provided with a strong government safety net. Which of the following best describes these societies?

collective

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46

Which of the following statements is generally true about the United States?

people are highly individualistic

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47

Robin Williams is a sociologist who identified fifteen American values. All of the following are among the items in that list EXCEPT for __.

universalism

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48

The appreciation of and concern for all humanity is referred to as __.

universalism

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49

The seeking of personal pleasure is referred to as __.

hedonism

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50

Which of the following values would dominate in a theocratic society, ruled or controlled by religious authorities, like in Iran or Saudi Arabia?

tradition and conformity

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51

Anisa lives and works in Washington, D.C. She has a very stable job that provides her with a good income and standard of living. As she goes to work each day, she notices that there are many people who are homeless, often with signs asking for help or with cups out asking for spare change. Anisa notices that many people walk by and often give these people looks of disgust. She believes that it's important to support those in our society who live in poverty. She often gives money, buys someone a meal, or takes food to the local food bank. Why does Anisa engage in these behaviors?

She values helping the poor and feels that her behavior and actions should match what she values.

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52

Which researcher has found that there are about ten distinct values that have a similar meaning across cultures?

Shalom Schwartz

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53

Which best describes a social structure?

a recurring pattern of behavior

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54

Maria decides she will become a firefighter despite the fact that no woman in her town has ever been a firefighter. She encounters resistance from family, friends, and even the local fire chief when she tells them of her career plans. However, she takes the admissions test and is accepted into the firefighter training program. By going against what is expected, Maria's behavior illustrates which sociological concept?

action

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55

How would a sociologist define "action"?

operating outside of social constraints

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56

How are action and social structure related?

Action is when individuals act in ways that are not expected or even conflict with their structural position.

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57

Which of following is an example of a student exhibiting action?

a student calls a teacher by her first name and refuses to use the title of “Ms.”

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58

Why would workers fighting the closure of a manufacturing plant be an example of action?

Workers are acting outside of their structural positions as employees by fighting their superiors.

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59

How does a social institution relate to the concept of social structure?

Social institutions are a type of social structure that governs major areas of social life.

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60

Why might some describe the social structure of Puerto Rico right after Hurricane Maria in 2017 as "collapsing"?

Daily routines and patterns of behavior broke down in the days following Maria.

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61

Who defined power as the ability to bring about an intended outcome, even when opposed by others?

Max Weber

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62

The "ability to bring about an intended outcome" is an example of which approach to power?

“powe to”

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63

Which of the following approaches highlights the capacity to dominate others?

“power over”

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64

Which approach to power is most typical of feminist scholarship?

empowerment

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65

Some societies are powerful because they have access to resources and knowledge that enables them to accomplish goals. This approach to power is attributed to which theorist?

Talcott Parsons

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66

Increasing people's capacity to bring about an intended outcome is referred to as __.

empowerment

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67

Which strategy contributes to empowerment?

education and networking

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68

The process through which people learn their culture's basic norms, values, beliefs, and appropriate behaviors is referred to as

socialization

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69

Which of the following statements accurately describes socializaton?

socialization occurs throughout life

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70

Which group is usually the most important socializing agent when we are children?

family

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71

After Chae-Won was born, her mother taught her about the appropriate behavior for living in an American society. When she was three years old, she went to day care full-time because her mother decided to go back to work. When she was five she started kindergarten. Once she was in high school, she decided to take a job at a local restaurant as a waitress. Chae-Won had many friends in high school and also played on the soccer team. Which of these groups served as agents of socialization for Chae-Won?

her family, friends, day care, school, job, and soccer team

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72

Who or what are the agents of socialization who first teach us about our appropriate gender roles?

family

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73

Shania and Enrique are high school students who come from two different families. Shania's parents both went to college; one works as a high school teacher, and the other is an accountant. Shania's parents encouraged her to be involved in extracurricular activities and various clubs while going to school. Enrique's parents are both high school graduates; one works as a clerk at the local grocery store, and the other works in construction when work is available. Sometimes money is tight in the household. Enrique's parents have asked him to get a job to help out. Enrique has little time to be involved in school activities and his parents do not feel those should be a priority because they take away from time that Enrique could be working and earning money for the family. When looking at both of these families, what can explain the difference in Enrique's and Shania's experiences?

social class plays a significant role in what is expected of teenagers

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74

Which sociologist believes that parents socialize their children into doing work that is similar to their own work?

Melvin Kohn

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75

Based on cross-national research, which group of parents is more likely to raise their children to be independent?

those in wealthy countries

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76

Of the following, which socializing agent has the MOST influence on one's political socialization?

family

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77

Rico was raised by a stay-at-home mother and a father who worked in an office 40 hours a week. Carlo was raised by a single mother who worked 40 hours a week in a high-power executive position. Based on research relating to political views, which of the following statements is most likely?

Rico holds more conservative views than Carlo

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78

Which agent of socialization is most focused on teaching cultural knowledge?

schools

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79

In the United States children are taught, starting in kindergarten, what is considered appropriate behavior. They are expected to learn and say the Pledge of Allegiance every morning. When their teacher wants to get their attention, they may ring a bell or turn the lights on and off rapidly. At this time, students learn very quickly to stop whatever they are doing and to sit on the floor in front of the teacher. As they progress through school, teachers still have expectations of the behavior they would like to see in their students. What is operating in American schools?

a hidden curriculum

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80

Which of the following values is most likely to be taught to American children?

pursuing individual achievement

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81

According to research, tweens (8-12 y/o) spend the most time __.

using the media

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82

What agent of socialization has become the most influential in contemporary society?

the media

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83

Which sociological perspective focuses on interpersonal interactions?

symbolic interactionist

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84

Symbolic interactionists would be most interested in studying which aspect of education?

how classmates interact with one another

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85

According to sociologists, which of the following allows people to communicate?

shared symbols and meanings

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86

What do sociologists call the common understanding between people that arises from shared knowledge, reality, or experience?

intersubjectivity

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87

Two strangers meet on a train. Despite speaking the same language, they are never able to reach a common understanding about their experiences, nor do they have a common set of knowledge, with neither being able to take the perspective of the other. What is NEVER achieved in this interaction?

intersubjectivity

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88

Albert is in his first year as a sociology graduate student. He wants to be a symbolic interactionist and is starting a project on soccer teams. Which of the following research questions would Albert be most likely to explore?

How do soccer players and coaches relate to one another during practice and matches

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89

What sociological concept is the idea that if someone defines a situation as real then it is real in its consequences?

the Thomas theorem

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90

A social group decides that the length of someone's big toe represents how intelligent and trustworthy that person is. Soon those with longer big toes have a higher social standing. Though the criterion may seem silly, it becomes a very real way group members are differentiated. This illustrates which sociological concept?

the Thomas theorem

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91

Which factor helps define the boundary between normal and abnormal?

nonconformity

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92

Deviance is best defined as which of the following?

behavior that does not conform to norms and expectations

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93

What we define as normal and abnormal behavior depends on __.

social context

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94

According to Emile Durkheim's definition, an act is deviant or criminal because it __.

offends social norms

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95

Which of the following accurately describes deviance?

it changes with time and social context

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96

What did Emile Durkheim mean by collective conscience?

shared values, norms, and beliefs in a community

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97

Divorce was once considered deviant, and in many parts of the world it still is. Americans today hardly think of divorce as something abnormal. What is responsible for the redefinition of divorce as no longer deviant?

change in social context

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98

What is the basic division in a capitalist economy, according to Marx?

the division between the political party in power and the opposition

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99

When, historically, did the sociological analysis of class and inequality begin?

the late 1800s and early 1900s

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100

Two couples, both of whom have children, are neighbors. In each couple, one partner works full time in banking and the other partner cares for the children. The couples enjoy going to Broadway shows, and they take vacations with their families each year. Which of the following do the couples have in common?

class

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