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Francis Bacon


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80 Terms

Francis Bacon

developed the scientific method


Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars

Protestant Reformation

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church.


aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century


(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.


Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446)

Leonardo da Vinci

A well known Italian Renaissance artist, architect, musician, mathemetician, engineer, and scientist. Known for the Mona Lisa.


Was an Italian sculptor of Renaissance times who lived from 1386 to 1466. He sought to create statues of natural poses that reflected the actual working of human muscles, rather than the awkward rigid postures of medieval times.

Johannes Gutenburg

Invented the printing press


Everyday language of ordinary people


pardon sold by the catholic church to reduce one's punishment in purgatory

Martin Luther

95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule.

Pope Leo X

began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church


a member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther

John Calvin

religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society


A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin.

King Henry Vlll

broke from church and made a new church called the Anglican Church for personal reasons such as wanting a divorce but the Pope didn't allow him

Church of England (Anglican Church)

Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife

Catholic Reformation

a 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation

Counter Reformation

the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)

Ignatius Loyola

(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.


Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.

Council of Trent

Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.

Tycho Brahe

(1546-1601) established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.

Johannes Kepler

German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)

Sir Isaac Newton

British scientist that developed the three laws of motion


A person who denies the existence of God

King Ferdinand

King of Spain who agreed to finance Christopher Columbus's expedition to the Americas in 1492

Philip II

(1527-1598) King of Spain from 1556 to 1598. Absolute monarch who helped lead the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings. Also sent the Spanish Armada against England.

Spanish Inquisition

An organization of priests in Spain that looked for and punished anyone suspected of secretly practicing their old religion instead of Roman Catholicism.

Decree of Alhambra

the expulsion edict of the Jews

Act of Supremacy

Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.

Elizabeth I

English Queen and politique who united Protestants and Catholics through compromise

Elizabethan Age

A golden age of English history when Elizabeth I was queen

Muscovy Company

English company that monopolized trade routes to Russia

British East India Company

A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.

James I

(1603-1625) Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings.

Charles I

King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649

petition of right

Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land

Long Parliament

Parliament convened by Charles I in 1640; lasted on and off for 20 years; passed laws that limited power of monarchy

Oliver Cromwell

English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.

English Commonwealth

period in English history where the nation had no monarch; began w/ execution of Charles I and ended w/ restoration of Charles II; led by Oliver Cromwell


A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements

middle ages

The time between the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century AD and the beginning of the Renaissance in the fourteenth century.


A movement for religious reform

Scientific Revolution

A major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.

Lord Protector

Oliver Cromwell disbanded parliament and took this title when parliament moved to quit funding the New Model Army

Stuart Restoration

reestablishment of monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I, after Cromwell's death. It temporarily ended England's troubles.

Habeas Corpus act

This was act in which any people unlawfully detained could be prosecuted